Imágenes de páginas

stripped those most ancient monuments, some erected by wealthy monarchs and intended by them as ornaments for their cities; some, too, the work of our own generals, which they either gave or restored as conquerors to the different states in Sicily. And he did this not only to public statues and ornaments, but he also plundered all the temples consecrated in the deepest religious feelings of the people. He did not leave, in short, one god to the Sicilians which appeared to him to be made in a tolerably workmanlike manner, and with any of the skill of the ancients. (Oration, chap. 5.)


1. Compare the value of this material with that taken from Sallust. 2. What evidence does Cicero give of the corrupt state of the courts? 3. What interest had "foreign nations" in this trial? 4. Enumerate the crimes committed by Verres and show how the state would be injured by them.

VERRES TRIES TO CORRUPT THE COURT. When he first returned from the province, he endeavored to get rid of this prosecution by corrupting the judges at a great expense; and this object he continued to keep in view till the conclusion of the appointment of the judges. After the judges were appointed, because in drawing lots for them the fortune of the Roman people had defeated his hopes, and in rejecting some, my diligence had defeated his impudence, before the attempted bribery was abandoned. The affair was going on admirably; lists of your names and of the whole tribunal were in everyone's hands. It did not seem possible to mark the votes of these men with any distinguishing mark or color or spot of dirt; and that fellow, from having been brisk and in high spirits, became on a sudden so downcast and humbled that he seemed to be condemned not only by the Roman people, but even by himself. But lo! all of a sudden, within these few days, since the consular commitia has taken place, he has gone back to his original plan with more money, and his same plots are now laid against your reputation and against the fortunes of everyone, by the instrumentality of the same people. (Chap. 6.)

For as Hortensius, the consul elect, was being attended home again from the campus by a great concourse and multitude of people, Caius Curio fell in that multitude by chance, a man whom I wish to name by way of honor rather than by way of dispar

agement. I will tell you what, if he had been unwilling to have it mentioned, he would not have spoken of in so large an assembly, so openly and undisguisedly; which, however, shall be mentioned by me deliberately and cautiously that it may be seen that I pay due regard to our friendship and to his digni y. He sees Verres in a crowd by the Arch of Fabius; he speaks to the man, and with a loud voice congratulates him on his victory. He does not say a word to Hortensius himself, who had been made consul, or to his friends and relations who were present attending on him; but he stops to speak to this man, embraces him, and bids him cast off all anxiety. "I give you notice," said he, "that you have been acquitted by this day's commitia." And as many most honorable men heard this it is immediately reported to me; indeed, everyone who saw me mentioned it to me the first thing. To some it appeared scandalous, to others ridiculous; ridiculous to those who thought that this cause depended on the credibility of the witnesses, on the importance of the charges, and on the power of the judges, and not on the consular commitia; scandalous to those who looked deeper, and who thought that this congratulation had reference to the corruption of the judge. In truth they argued in this manner-the most honorable men spoke to one another and to me in this manner-that there were now manifestly and undeniably no courts of justice at all. The very criminal who the day before thought that he was already condemned, is acquitted now that his defender has been made consul. What are we to think then? Will it avail nothing that all Sicily, all the Sicilians, that all the merchants who have business in that country, that all public and private documents are now at Rome? Nothing, if the consul elect wills it otherwise. What! Will not the judges be influenced by the accusation, by the evidence, by the universal opinion of the Roman people? No. Everything will be governed by the power and authority of one man. (Oration, chap. 7.)


1. How did Cicero defeat Verres' attempt at bribery? 2. Why did Verres use his money to elect Hortensius? 3. Why did Cicero consider the conversation between Curio and Verres so important? 4. What was the real danger that menaced the Roman state? 5. Make a brief comparison of the Roman of this period with the Roman of the preceding period.


[ocr errors]


I once saw a father walk up to a map his little boy had made and pinned on the wall. He stood before it a long time in silence, and in silence walked away. The little fellow was sitting in the room, and his father knew he was there. He was watching with his eager child's eyes, waiting anxiously for a word of approval. As none came, his poor little face fell unhappily. Straight into the next room walked the father, and said carelessly:

"Robert has drawn a very clever little map in there. Look at it when you go in.'


"Did you tell him it was clever?" asked a judicial listener, following from the room where little Robert sat. "Why, no. I ought to have done so. I never thought to mention it."

"Well you ought to be ashamed of yourself," was the deserved reply. "Go back now and tell him."

We ought all of us to be ashamed of ourselves a dozen times a day for like sins of omission. It costs so little to say nice things, and the result in another's pleasure is out of all proportion to our trouble.-Harper's Bazar.


Some Papers on the Public Library

The Care and Preservation of Books

GREAT have been the changes in the mak ing of books since early times, and widely

different are their dissemination and use. Formerly books were few in number, expensively bound, and chained to prevent their removal from libraries and private residences; now they are innumerable, cheap, and given the widest possible use and circulation. It is fortunate that the Bible, and Shakespeare, and other classics are so inexpensive that they may be owned even by the poorest; that public libraries may purchase a hundred, or even a thousand, books for what was formerly the price of one, and that school boards, by furnishing text-books, may make education absolutely free. What a contrast is presented when we read that a New York firm, a short time ago, made a contract to deliver two million complete paper-covered books at two and a half cents a volume, and when we consider the following description of an ancient book: "A booke of golde enamelled, clasped with a rubie, having on the one syde a of dyamounts and vj other dyamounts, and the other syde a flower-de-luce of dyamounts, iiij rubies with a pendaunte of white saphires and the armes of Englande,-which booke is garnished with small emeraldes and rubies hanging to a cheyne pillar fashion set with xv knottes, everie one conteyning iiij rubies!"

What is the great drawback in the books of the present time? They are cheaply made and wear out quickly. The libraries are stimulating readers and increasing the circulation of books but are sending out such as, with comparatively few readings, fall from their cases. Librarians with insufficient funds to admit of constant rebinding are dismayed at this apparently unavoidable deterioration. The poet Skelton once wrote of a book:

"It would have made a man hole that had be right sickely,

To behold how it was garnished and bound, Encoverede over with gold and tissue fine

The claspes and bullions were worth a M pounde." But the sight of a modern book, with its cloth cover worn out at the back or its end-leaves and cheese-cloth fastening torn, is far from being

restorative. Books, like razors, are "made to sell." It is not simply the light novels that are thus bound, but books of value that ought to live. Even the supplements to Poole's Index, published under the auspices of the Library Association, and of course subjected to the hardest wear, are made in this perishable manner. Surely there should be a limit to this cheapness, and libraries could well afford to pay more for better bound books. There is need of an emphatic protest. Publishers will be quick to respond as soon as they see that there is a demand for more durable editions.

As an offset to cheap books and their increased use, there is need now as never before, in the library, in the school, and in the home, to watch, repair, rebind, and save the books. Much can be accomplished by care in the use of books on the part of adults and by directions given to children. The Crete public library, in company with many others, furnishes its young readers with what is known as the Maxson Book Mark, which reads as follows:



"Once on a time," a Library Book was overheard talking to a little boy who had just borrowed it. The words seemed worth recording and here they are:

"Please don't handle me with dirty hands. I should feel ashamed to be seen when the next little boy borrowed me.

"Or leave me out in the rain. Books can catch cold as well as children.

"Or make marks on me with your pen or pencil. It would spoil my looks.

"Or lean on me with your elbows when you are reading me. It hurts.

"Or open me and lay me face down on the table. You wouldn't like to be treated So.

"Or put in between my leaves a pencil or anything thicker than a single sheet of thin paper. It would strain my back.

"Whenever you are through reading me, if you are afraid of losing your place, don't turn down the corner of one of my leaves, but have a neat little Book Mark to put in where you stopped, and then close me and lay me down on my side so that I can have a good, comfortable rest.

[ocr errors]

"Remember that I want to visit a great many other little boys after you are through with me. Besides, I may meet you again some day, and you would be sorry to see me looking old and torn and soiled. Help me to keep fresh and clean, and I will help you to be happy."

In order to repair a book it is well to know how it is made, which can be ascertained by tearing up some old volume. It will be found in most cases that a book consists of a number of sections, or signatures, and that they are held together by being sewed to two or more cords, or tapes, crossing the back, which is glued. Waste-leaves, or end-leaves, will be found pasted at either end and a piece of cheesecloth pasted on the back, projecting enough at either end to admit of being pasted to the inside of the covers, or mill-boards. The last endpieces are pasted over the cheese-cloth and onto the covers. There is also a strip of paper pasted over the cheese-cloth on the back. The outside of the back will be found, in most cases, to be covered with cloth, although there may be a leather back, with cloth or paper sides. In some cases the cords, or tapes, are long enough to admit of being fastened under the end-leaves or laced through holes in the mill-boards. Small head-bands will be found fastened on the back at the top and bottom.

When a leaf comes out it should be immedi ately pasted in. The mucilage, or paste, may be applied neatly by laying the leaf onto a waste piece of paper and then using another piece of paper as a guide a little way from the back edge of the leaf. Several leaves may be fastened in together in this way, but sometimes it is best to sew them. A torn leaf should be repaired by using prepared tissue paper, which is perfectly transparent, on both sides of the leaf. The joints of the books should be repaired as soon as the paper begins to break; sometimes pasting is sufficient, but it is well to protect the cheese-cloth, or cords, as long as possible by pasting in narrow joints of good rag paper, or thin cloth. When the cheesecloth gives out it should be immediately replaced, or a stronger cloth used. It is important to keep the sewing of the book intact as long as possible. In case the back begins to wear out, it may be temporarily repaired by sewing it or pasting on strips of cloth; when too badly worn, a new back of cloth may be put on by raising the cloth on the boards on either side and slipping the ends of the new back under them. The old back may then be glued on over the new back or simply the title neatly

cut out. When a leather cover gives way and the boards become separated, they may be restored by sewing them on and then fastening black oil-cloth over the sewing, or by raising the leather on the back and on the boards and slipping in a strong fastening of stout cloth. If the book breaks apart the whole cover may be carefully removed and all the sections, or signatures, resewed. This may be done by using a sewing-frame, which is not very expensive. This art must be learned from one familiar with it, or acquired from some printed description, as the one contained in "Bookbinding for Amateurs," pp. 49-52. A letter-press is also necessary for pressing a book, and a laying-press and backing boards are used where it is necessary to make grooves for the boards to repose in. Should it be necessary to guard against the bookworm, a little alum or vitriol mixed with the paste will be sufficient. This may also be infused into the paste with which the book-plate is fastened on, particularly if the book is already bound.

When books are sent to the bindery, care should be taken to see that good material is used and that the book is properly sewed. It is better to pay a little extra, if thereby durable binding is assured. What is known as "Association Binding" is as follows: "Each signature must be sewed, and, for books larger than duodecimo, on at least three strong cords; backs and corners must be of genuine goat, or vellum may be used on the corners. Boards laced on, solid backs, paper sides, tops burnished, edges trimmed no more than absolutely necessary to make them even, are also requirements." Buckram, or canvas, has been found to be a durable material for backs and corners. Particularly magazines, that will always be useful, should be bound in the strongest manner possible, with good sewing, "each fold of more than two leaves being sewed 'all along' the edge of the fold," with cords laced into the boards and with cloth joints attached to covers, and after the first and last sections. The best is the cheapest in the end. The best is none too good. In our care of books we must have in mind the interests of those yet unborn.

Librarian, Doane College.


Who Will Help?

T has been the aim of the publisher of THE NORTH WESTERN MONTHLY to make this department of administration helpful and useful to boards of education. During the past six months the topics treated have been suggested by members of boards of education, or they have been présented in answer to requests from those specially interested in the bettering of the work of the school boards. The publisher and the editor of this department would be very glad if members of the boards of education would only make a larger use of this department. Hardly two boards of education can be said to work along the same lines. Constantly the members are trying new methods or new experiences, some of which prove eminently successful, others prove to be signal failures. School boards seem to be afraid to make known to the world the result of their labors in the different directions. We are writing this article in the hope that some of the boards of education may be aroused to come into the circle of letting others know the results of their experimenting along certain lines. You need the results as they are gleaned by some one from their field of activity, but the others need the results that you have already secured. Probably in no department of school work is there such a lack of confidence as between school boards, or else it is a very gross indifference. No matter which, will you break away from all these things that in the past have kept the school boards from imparting their knowledge as gleaned in the great school of experience? Will you be one of the number to join in the good work of making school boards better acquainted with the working plans and methods of each other. This department is open wide-yes, very wide-for the bringing about of this greatly desired object. Do not be afraid to ask questions. Do not be afraid to tell the school boards of the world about some of the good things that you know in connection with the arduous work of the board of education. Do not be ashamed to tell outside of your own "charmed circle" the mistakes you have made, for it may be the means of keeping some one else from making the same

error. If it was a costly error to you, it may mean the saving of considerable to others and the wasting of funds that should go to the bettering of the boys and girls of our schools. The department is open. Who will help in making it the marked success that the publisher desires? Will you help?

The Merit System

A GREAT deal has been written in the past

concerning the merit system in the selecting of efficient teachers. It will be a day of rejoicing for school boards when merit system and proper civil service can be employed in connection with our electing of, and promoting, teachers. It will be a sad day for those who think that the question of politics ought to be carried out in the matter of selecting teachers. A tremendous factor (?) in the election of teachers is the theory that a member of the board has that he must have certain teachers because they belong to his party or are of his own special creation. Like the old Indian chiefs, who marked their bravery by the number of scalps hanging at their girdle, so some members of the board seem to measure the efficiency of their work by the number of teachers, good or indifferent, that they have discovered or caused to be placed on the roster. Ability counts but little, experience is hardly given consideration. But "my pull" is so many teachers. Merit system does away with all of this clamor. It will enable the members of the board to elect the teacher without considering the politics of all of her ancestors or relatives. With this system once inaugurated it will mean changes in other directions also. It will mean that the institutions that devote their energies to the training of teachers will have to raise the standard of their grading, for the marks from first to last will mean more than to-day. It ought to do away with the indiscriminate giving of commendations. It will do away with the earnest solicitation by the friends of the teacher for just this one place for my friend. It will do away with the discharging of competent teachers just because the present board did not discover them, or that there may be a place made for the teachers that the members

feel they are under special obligation to because of some uncle's, aunt's, cousin's, brother's political "pull." It cannot help but elevate the entire school system.

Nebraska's Free Text-Book Law

PROBABLY no state has a more satisfac tory free text-book law than Nebraska. During the past month several inquiries have reached this department concerning the working of this law. I believe it is growing in popularity. The more closely its mandatory provisions are observed the better and more satisfactory are the results. The objections offered so freely when the law was first enacted have entirely disappeared. It is a rare thing now to hear complaints. The schools of Nebraska are making commendable progress; the poor and the rich are alike provided with proper supplies and books. It is vastly superior to state uniformity, which seemingly fails to meet the varied requirements of the schools in the matter of selecting books to meet special requirements. The other inquiries are answered best by giving a brief summary of the Nebraska law:

I. All school boards empowered and required to furnish text-books and loan them free of charge to pupils of the school, holding pupils responsible for damage or loss.

II. Board authorized to contract with publishers for five years or less under the following restrictions:

1. Contract prices must be sworn to by publishers as being the lowest prices at which the designated books are sold anywhere in the United States.

2. Districts contracting are guaranteed the benefit of any reduction in price occurring during life of contract.

3. Publishers must file with the state superintendent a bond ($2,000 to $20,000) for the faithful fulfillment of contracts and observance of the law. The attorney-general is required to bring action upon cause arising.

4. State superintendent required to furnish to each school district, through the county superintendent, each publisher's sworn statement of prices; also prescribed blank for contract with publishers.

5. Contracts become void at option of school board, if publisher becomes party to any combi nation or trust for the purpose of raising the price of school text-books.

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

HE call is very pressing upon the boards of education to constantly increase their school equipment. New and improved methods are always at hand. In the efforts to have their schools among the best boards of education feel this constant pressure. They are confronted, however, with the more press ing question that the finances will not allow the increase asked. Boards of education have no special means allowed them of increasing their revenues. Their closest attention must then be given to the proper distribution of the funds. It is a very broad subject and it in volves the complete organization and adminis tration of all the various parts of the school system of any city, town, or community. The boards of education are often blamed because of the restricted manner in which they are com pelled to administer the trust committed to them. It is simply a case of compulsion. They measure their income and must of necessity administer the affairs so that the outgo will not exceed the income. It requires a careful concentration of the educational forces. It means looking at both sides of the question. Many of those who to-day are criticising the boards of education look only at one side of the question. If school revenues could be doubled or increased, then school facilities could be increased, ill-adapted buildings and faulty equip ment could all be done away with, and many of the difficulties in school administration be quickly and effectively removed. An increase of the revenues would help in revolutionizing the present system and aid in setting forth. improved methods, and, as if by magic, the school system would show marvelous advance.

Disinfecting School Supplies WITH the free text-books, and the furnish ing of school supplies to pupils, comes the oft-repeated statement, "lack of cleanliness and no way to disinfect supplies." It has been one of the bitterest forms of com

« AnteriorContinuar »