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Open Letter from Dr. Bailey EDITOR Child Study Department, NORTH WESTERN MONTHLY: Much to my regret I find that President G. Stanley Hall considers that I have made misstatements about Clark University and the philosophical work done there.* I thank him for the opportunity he courteously gives me to correct any misapprehensions I may have caused. The charges are these: (1.) The term "Clarkites" is said to be contemptuous; it is also thought to be misleading because the child study work forms a small part of the work of one department only. (2.) It is thought that my remarks imply the absence of philosophical work at Clark University. Let me answer: (1.) The term "Clarkites" was not intended to be contemptuous, but to be descriptive of the unity of attitude of those working under Dr. Hall in child study. The term is analogous to Kantian's Stoics, etc. Perhaps I should have said "Hallians." (2.) The quotations, "back number," "felt about," "merely metaphysical," etc., are not Dr. Hall's expressions, nor are they mine. I am sorry if the quotation points have led any one to attribute the expressions to Dr. Hall in person. Not only is attention paid at Clark University to the History of Philosophy, but highly interesting special courses given on Kant, Spencer, and other thinkers. Dr. Hall is personally a sympathetic expounder *See NORTH WESTERN MONTHLY, January, 1898: Ethology and Child Study."

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and critic-from his standpoint. In fact I speak of him in the article as a Socrates. I have noth

ing to change in my judgment as to the "hostil ity to philosophy and metaphysics" shown by the Clark University method of child study. I did not say that philosophy and metaphysics were not studied at Clark University: nor did I say that Dr. Hall was at all times and in all places hostile to "philosophy." He is too many-sided to be narrowly dogmatic in his lectures on philosophy. "Dr. Hall himself is a seer, a prophet, an inspirer." I wish the "philosophers" in all quarters could appreciate this. I wish still more that Dr. Hall's most helpful and most inspiring self could see fit to give the public more of those "things of the spirit" which I know him to possess. I trust he will pardon the brusqueness of my hastily penned article, and accuse me of carelessness rather than of in

justice and ingratitude. This I am sure he will do. I trust that all my impressions about the iconoclasm at Clark University are wrong.

Perhaps I may be allowed to add that the pigeon-holes into which I placed various workers in child study were not intended to be eternal categories. I simply picked out what seemed to me convenient designations that would show the predominance of one characteristic or another. THOS. P. BAILEY, JR., University of California.

[The above was received too late to be noticed in the editorial.-ED.]

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The Educational Influence of the Woman's



THAT the great club movement among women is educational, who can doubt? In its incipient form it served as a sort of university, or, rather, high school extension. It was almost purely literary then. It recalled to the attention of the matron the literary instincts and interests of her school days. began once more to do a little systematic reading; to keep up with contemporaneous literature, and to achieve some independent research upon the library shelves. After a while, inlog ical sequence, she began to feel an interest in the questions of the day. The great themes.

which have agitated the press at various times found an hour for discussion upon the club program. She began to talk a little, instead of reading papers always. Finally she commenced to do things. She began to look after the schools of her community; to question the sanitary arrangements of her city; to inquire if it were necessary that streets should be quite so filthy; to realize that her home was not only the four walls that bound her, but the city, the community, the country, which lay all about her and her children. Then, with a start, the club woman realized that, as a club woman, she possessed influence. Where alone she would have received no attention in a repre

sentative capacity, she commanded respect. She awoke suddenly, and almost for the first time in the history of the world, to the significance and power of organization.


Mrs. Henrotin, the brainy president of the General Federation, never said a truer thing than once in a speech in Denver, when she remarked that women in the past have been "fearfully individual." It is true. Their affections have been deep, but narrow; their interests intense, but selfishly confined. The reasons for this lie far back in primitive times, and the evolutionist who has put a little intelligent study upon primitive human conditions, realizes almost with awe that he is observing a new development in the evolution of the race, in this great movement for organization among women. It is because they feel this that many of the best and brightest of their sex are devoted with such intense loyalty to the club movement. It is not because of the amateur essay on "Mary, Queen of Scots," that is read at the club, nor yet because a city improvement committee has secured the posting of anti-expectoration notices in public buildings, that they believe in the club. No, it is because they can see women broadening in mind; growing more charitable of heart; breaking through false social barriers; shedding, like the chrys

alis, old, worn-out notions of caste; learning

that women are sisters, as well as men, brothers; discovering their power for good in organization, and finding a fresh awakening each day to the duties and responsibilities of true womanhood.

If such have been the effects of isolated club life, how greatly have they been accentuated by the great biennial gatherings. There women from every corner of the land have gathered to hear discussed questions of interest to their sex in every relation of life. They have exchanged experiences, they have broadened and brightened and rubbed off angles. The biennial went to the south in '96, and at Louisville the women of the old south and the new, met their sisters from the east and the west, and Mason and Dixon's line was forgotten. This year it comes to the west. Denver has been chosen as a typical western city for the meeting of the biennial next June. Half-way be tween the river and the sea, it is the center of the Rocky Mountain region, and will attract large numbers of western women who have

never before attended the biennial. All western women feel a proprietory interest in the next biennial, as well as those of Colorado. This is evidenced by the letters which the local committees are already receiving. Yet, from the same source, it is seen that as many eastern women are coming as ever. There has been a great deal of misunderstanding between the west and the east for the past few years, some bitter feeling, and some disagreeable things said. The biennial will help to correct all this. It will be a glorious meeting. The Colorado women are planning for a true western welcome, abounding in hospitality and good times. They will give the delegates a free excursion around the Georgetown loop, a typical mountain trip, with lunch at a mining camp. The Woman's Club of Denver, with its thousand members, will keep open house all through biennial week, which begins June 22. Couches and easy chairs, frosty lemonades, and com mittees in attendance, will await the weary vis itor whenever she feels that she is being "pa

pered to death." There the woman from Maine

can talk over her club with the woman from California, and both find interest in the personal intercourse.

The Broadway theatre, in which the convention will be held, will be dressed each morning with the famous wild flowers of the Rockies, sent in fresh from the mountain towns. The

Broadway seats 1,650, and its accoustic prop erties are perfect. There will be a bureau of information in connection, where the visitor can find anything from a spool of thread to a bicycle inn. The Woman's club is training two choruses, one of women, and one of young daughters of the members,-to help with the biennial music, and there will be music by other women's organizations, and by a chil dren's orchestra. The governor of the state and the mayor of Denver will make addresses of welcome, as will Mrs. E. M. Ashley, state chairman of correspondence, speaking for the women of the state, and Mrs. Sarah S. Platt, president of the Woman's club, for those of the city. It will be the biggest and brightest biennial yet held, and the Colorado women hope for a generous delegation from their sister state of Nebraska. MINNIE J. REYNOLDS.

Denver, Colo.

THE Tennessee Federation held its annual meeting in Chattanooga, February 2, 3, and 4 with the most distinctively educational pro

grain we have ever known a federation to present. Indeed it is hard to find an item upon it, aside from the reports of business committees, that is not directly connected with some phase of educational thought. One session was given to a symposium on the topic, "Is Federation a Factor in the Educational Work of the State?" and another was occupied by a discussion on the "Educational Needs of Tennessee," while the main address of the evening session had for its subject, "What is the New Movement in Education?" We notice also upon the program such topics as "The County Schools," "The Public School Teacher," "University Extension," and "Travelling Libraries," while "Household Economics," which certainly is a branch of education, was treated by Miss Mary Boyce Temple, the vice-president for the state of the National Household Economic Association.

Surely the Woman's Clubs of Tennessee must constitute an "outside educational force" which will make itself felt in the institutions of that state to the advantage of all concerned.


MISS ALICE BRADFORD WILES, president of the Illinois Federation, believes that the Woman's Club should stand first of all for "the ministry of culture in the home, in the school, and in the community." To that end she calls upon the earnest women of her constituency to use their "utmost endeavor for the spread of a perception and love of beauty." She would have them emphasize th deeper appreciation of the best literature, the best music, and the best art, and in a recent public address she has presented the relation which "the ministry of pure culture" bears to the other interests of the club, in the following forcible words:

It is a ministry in which we trench on the field of no other organization, yet in which we can unite with every other; a ministry possible and pleasing to the smallest study class in our federation, as well as to the strongest department club; a ministry most blessed in our homes, and best exemplified by the quiet, homeloving wife and mother, who has time for reading and music, a ministry absolutely essential in our schools if the rising generation is to carry this republic on to a future worthy of its past; a ministry without which philanthropy becomes cold and hard, serving only to supply pressing material needs and giving no impetus to higher and better life.

THE club interests of the 15,000 women of the Illinois Federation have been grouped this year

under five heads, and the latest bulletin of "Suggestions for Practical Work," sent out by the Federation embraces the ideas of five committees, namely, education, philanthrophy, literature, art, and music. We quote the advice of the committee on art, believing it to be capable of application to the work of any club which has an art department:

Clubs interested in work along artistic lines are urged to study not only for pleasure and culture, but in such a way that there may be practical results from their study in the education of taste in their communities.

To this end it is suggested that the study courses include not merely the history of painting and sculpture, but that the principles of good design be studied in practical and concrete ways. We need not only knowledge about works of art, but artistic judgment. The design of our manufactured articles is determined largely by woman's taste, for women select the articles which are essential to the equipment of a home. That these articles are so often bad in design is due to the low standard of public taste and demand. Improvement in taste can only come through education in the principles of good design.

With this general purpose in mind, the Art Committee submits the following suggestions:

First, as to courses of study. Let these include such subjects as

1. History of Painting and Sculpture. 2. Evolution of Architectural Styles.

3. Principles of Design and Decoration. 4. Art Education in the Schools.

5. Great Buildings, especially such American buildings as the Boston and Congressional Libraries. Second, as to practical work in the community.

1. If not already accomplished see that training in drawing is given in your schools.

2. If it has been introduced insist upon the best textbooks and teachers. The committee has informed itself as to the merits of the various systems and will give further suggestions if desired. 3. Decorate Schoolrooms.

Miss Evans, state president of the Women's Clubs of Minnesota, has started the good fashion of inviting clubs of the near-by towns to meet socially and discuss their work.

An Ohio club publishes annually the quotations that have been given by its members through the year, thereby adding, by pleasant association, still more to their value.

A sentence of Thoreau is worthy of thought in these days of accumulated treasures: "I had three pieces of limestone on my desk, but

I was terrified to find that they required to be dusted daily, when the furniture of my mind was all undusted still, and I threw them out the window in disgust."

The question arises in these busy days, "When is the housekeeper to find time to study and write?" The answer I ask you, offering but one suggestion, that she have office hours, or rather that she insists that she shall not be interrupted during a certain part of each day. MRS. FRANK S. ALLEN.

MISS EVANS, state president Minnesota Women's Clubs, in a recent address before the state teachers' association in St. Paul, said that at Carleton college they had this motto:

"The ornament of a house is cleanliness.
The honor of a house is hospitality.
The blessing of a house is piety.

The happiness of a house is contentedness." which she thought might be equally appropriate for Women's Clubs. The text is a good one. A sermon might not be more effective.

THE Bureau of Education, which is under the jurisdiction of the Woman's Department of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, is meeting with gratifying encouragement in its effort to arrange a series of educational, philosophical, and scientific congresses to be held in connection with the exposition. Although seventy or more state and national organizations are to meet in Omaha next summer, there are many subjects of popular interest which will be untouched except as they are represented by supplemental programs. It is the work of the congress committee to set in motion the machinery which will finally produce these programs, and they report progress in connection with upwards of thirty distinct subjects,

which may be grouped under the general topics of art, music, literature, moral reform, social questions, municipal problems, philanthropy, and finance.

The method by which the committtee works is a very simple one. They seek advice by consultation and correspondence with those who are identified with certain movements of thought regarding the best known specialists in that line. Then, having secured by invitation a leader, and his choice of four others to serve with him upon a committee of arrangements, they appoint a local committee of ways and means and the organization is complete. The most gratifying element in the experience of the congress committee thus far is based upon the fact that some of the strongest men and women in the country are not only co-operating with them, but are giving their service in committee work in very generous fashion. The list of topics and chairmen will be ready for publication in a few weeks, and it will provoke enthu siasm among those who look for an exposition of thought as well as an exposition of things at Omaha this year.

Apropos of the exposition, the attention of mothers and teachers is called to the individual exhibits asked for by the educational department. These are grouped under six heads: composition, history, penmanship, drawing, nature study, and industrial training. Any enrolled pupils may compete for the awards, which are medals of gold, silver, and bronze, and the work will be received up to April 15. It is hoped that these competitions will bring out some exceptional work, especially in history, where the "source method" is suggested, and in nature study, where collections illustrating the plant life of the neighborhood are called for.

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that exists largely among quite successful teachers whose education is very limited, but whose skill is well developed. This tendency is the disposition to over-magnify method, to worship at the shrine of cunning devices, to seek to know how to do at the expense of accurate and thorough scholarship, and thus be little the province of the true teacher. Good, accurate knowledge of a subject is the first requisite. Ability to think in arithmetic, in history, or in any other subject, is essential to the best work in all cases, and there can be no substitute for this thoroughness of knowing. The spirit of the times demands more than the public is getting out of educational effort. This is largely due to the fact that knowledge, gennine scholarship, is not really appreciated. The average teacher does not know enough to truly instruct the pupil under his charge in the lessons of civilization. He is not well enough informed to send his pupil away from the classroom so well prepared and so carefully taught that he has the chance in life that the expenditure made by the state in his behalf should secure him

Methods are not to be despised; they are always good servants in the hands of intelligence, and must not be ignored nor rejected; they are worthy the most careful attention and study of every thoughtful and ambitious teacher; but it must be understood that a superior method can never enable ignorance to do good, worthy work in the schoolroom. Thinking is hard work, studying out educational problems is laborious and enervating; hence, the multitude are zealous in trying to seek some device, some shrewd method, some successful system, hoping thereby to gain credit, renown, and ability. The teacher of to-day should have both thinking and doing in his course of study, and he should be told that both need full and free development in his education and in his life if he is to be a real power in the world of thought and action. HOMER H. SEERLEY, Iowa State Normal School.

The Modern Teacher and Scholarship

MANY circumstances have conspired to bring scholarship among teachers into disrepute. The cast-iron curriculum of the old-fashioned college and academy, excellent as it was for many purposes, too often turned out a castiron teacher. He was labeled as learned. He was unsympathetic with what were known as

the practical studies in the school. At first he was unlearned as to how to teach. With the rise of the sciences and the pressing of many subjects into the curriculum of the school, the teacher of the cast-iron curriculum seemed more impractical than ever. A little later there was a tendency to consider a little learning about many things as scholarship. Superficiality flourished. Fluency was mistaken for brilliancy. The old idea of brilliancy demanded not only "a man of parts," as the phrase was, but a man who by ap. plication was polished. Fluency under pressure becomes liquid to the point of evaporation. We are about ready to take up again the motto, "It is drudgery as does it."

The rise of normal schools and the introduction of the study of methods gave the impression among the thoughtless that method could take the place of matter. Teaching tended to be come a trade, with its tricks. There was an attractiveness about the agility of the teacher who had learned the art of teaching, as contrasted with the cumbersomeness of the oldfashioned scholar.

In these latter days the new theory of education may have unconsciously made against scholarship. When teaching was viewed as simply the imparting of knowledge, naturally the rainbow of scholarship appeared above the knowledge sought and imparted. But now we believe that the impartation of knowledge is a subordinate function of the teacher. His prime function is to impart life, to tend the growth of the sentient, developing pupil. His personality is the sun of the pupil's life. Knowledge is but the muck that furnishes food for the growth of the pupil. If our illustration of the modern relation of pupil and teacher is right, we see that under the recent theories of education knowledge still has its place. Muck is not to be despised. Indeed, we have now learned in agriculture the importance of analyzing fertilizers, of making such combinations of elements and such adaptations to particular soils and plants as to get results undreamed of under the old careless forms of cultivation. By the same token we have reached the point when we need to emphasize in the new education that there must be a more discriminating use of knowledge than ever before. We speak of the exact sciences. The entire group of studies is susceptible of analysis. All the subjects have their laws. Only the scholar is able to pass behind the phenomena to the laws and properly to ad

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