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their punishments? 21. Name the industries you find mentioned. 22. Were they good farmers? 23. Trace the journey of the Pilgrims from England to Plymouth. 24. Were the Puritans tolerant? 25. What kind of a man was Rev. John Cotton? 26. What does the testimony prove in regard to the morals of the colonists? 27. What peculiar attribute do you find in Maryland? 28. What colony would you have preferred to live in? why?


a. How would you explain the intolerant spirit

so often

manifested? b. Point out institutions existing now that had their beginning in 17th century. c. Did the theory and the practice of the Puritan coincide? d. Trace the development of witchcraft. Do you find its basis in life depicted in above extracts? e. Name the lessons you may learn from this study. H. W. CALDWELL, University of Nebraska.

Municipal Government

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ITY government is the epitome of national government, reflecting its character, and measuring the political liberty of its people. The complex life of the city includes every phase of civilization; the city's problems are those of both political and social science. It must solve such questions as Democratic Government with Universal Suffrage, the Temper ance Problem, the Relief of the Poor, and Socialism versus Individualism.

The Germans, French, English, and Americans are each in their own way attempting the solution. A study of municipal government as it is to-day in Great Britain reveals British methods and bent of character, while its historical evolution in that country is one phase of the remarkably uniform and continuous devel opment of civil and constitutional liberty of which England is justly proud. The object of this struggle contemporaneously fought by nation and town has ever been the attainment of recognized rights of self-government.

We shall glance at the existing town governments during some of the stages of national political development.

Saxon times.

During the Saxon period of English history, when central authority was lacking, and a national government in the modern sense unknown, such government as existed was popular in kind and local. The warriors, the freemen, made the laws and governed themselves. Each locality was practically a political unit, and all free able-bodied men (the condition of the times scarcely suffered any others) had an equal share in the government. A counterpart is found to day in the mining settlement of Klondyke, where similar conditions are produced by inac

cessibility to the central government. There the principal laws in force are made and executed in simple fashion by the miners themselves.

The Norman period-royal boroughs.

How the political and constitutional changes which distinguish the rule of the Normans from that of the Saxons were brought about is a volume in itself. Only a brief statement can be here attempted.

There had been a contemporaneous growth of royal power and of towns even under Saxon supremacy, but it proceeded much more rapidly with the advent of the Normans. The strong central authority exerted by William I. and his successors created a new constitutional era, and at the same time afforded better opportunities for municipal development.

The relation existing at that time between royal power and the growth of towns is explained by the fact that a powerful king could furnish that protection to life and property which the towns must have and yet could not secure for themselves. Here, also, we have a clue to how the people lost their early freedom. In return for this protection which the king, lord, or abbot gave them, they owed to him allegiance, service, and frequent payments of


Under the Normans the towns had become royal boroughs; that is, they acknowledged the king's rights over them by submitting to these manifold exactions. Whatever immunities from such interference they came to possess were secured by purchase. Kings, to obtain money for war, or nobles, to gain the necessary funds for a crusade, granted from time to time charters to the towns. These charters guaranteed certain immunities from excessive and irregular demands of money and service. This briefly shows the state of affairs during the Norman period; from which account it is evident, in both nation and town, there were but the germs of political liberty.

The gilds-beginnings of self-government.

Early attempts at self-government on the part of the towns were connected with the early gild organizations formed by merchants for purposes of trade. At a little later period gilds for each craft were organized. These at first were in conflict with the gilds merchant and town authorities; next we find they were approved by the latter and used by them for purposes of police and regulation. By the fifteenth century the gilds and town governments became nearly identical; only members of these gilds or misteries were called citizens and could take part in the government. Frequently the town council was composed wholly, or in part, of the elected representatives of these organizations. Such a government, while not representative in our modern sense, was well adapted to society as it was then constituted, and during the flourishing period of the gilds was fairly representative of the principal classes, or a large proportion of the town people.

Decline of the gilds-abuses in city government.

Through inequalities in the wealth, commercial position, and power of the different gilds or companies, great inequalities in political influence arose. Abuses of various kinds, chiefly

in the form of trade monopolies, crept into the management of the gilds, and consequently found their way into the municipal corporations which were managed by the gilds. Such abuses were fostered and increased by the sovereigns, since they could more easily manipulate to their own interests small and non-representative bodies. By the eighteenth century the municipal government of each town had become a handful of men, forming a close, self-perpetuating corporation. The old organization of crafts, even for industrial purposes, was obsolete, and a government based thereon entirely unfitted to the new social and political conditions. For the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth century, with the invention of machinery and rise of large factories, had created whole new towns and greatly enlarged others, thus redistributing population on an entirely new basis. Most of this population was not represented at all in the municipal or national government.

The reform of 1835-representative government.

The great reform of 1832 restored representa tive government in the nation, and the great municipal reform act of 1835 brought about the

same for the cities. This bill of 1835 made all


householders of England and Wales citizens, and gave them a share in the government. similar step was taken for Scotland in 1833. New enactments were made from time to time

and in 1882 these various laws were consolidated and revised into one municipal code. The final step in the evolution of municipal government as it is to-day in England was the great statute of 1888, the Local Government Act, giving representative councils to the English counties. The most important effect of this act was the reform of the government of London, which the earlier reforms had passed over as too great a task.

The ancient city of London, only one square mile, as distinct from the metropolis of one hundred square miles, had retained its old charters, and the affairs of government had remained in the hands of these close and self-perpetuating gilds, a great and privileged monopoly. Before 1888 the metropolis of London had no distinct form of government, but by this act it became for some purposes an administrative county. This act, regarded as a final settlement of the government of London, is incomplete, but it is a great step in the right direction.



As has already been said, the entire government of Great Britain, national and municipal, was quietly revolutionized by the reforms of 1832, 1833, and 1835. Before 1835 the government of the cities was in the hands of a few privileged men.

The electors.

A careful examination of the qualifications for voting as they are to-day shows the extent of the change effected in this respect. Universal or manhood suffrage, as we have it, does not exist in England. Only householders vote in Great Britain. This excludes, in practice, for municipal voting, according to Shaw, nearly all the unmarried men, all floating laborers and lodg ing-house sleepers, nearly all servants, and the vicious and "slum" elements, so frequently "worked" in American cities by party agents. On the other hand, women who are ratepayers do have a municipal vote. The exclusions here. deserve careful consideration, for their effect upon the character of the vote and as a question of political science.

The council.

The business of the electors is to select from the citizens a body of men called the council. At this point their duty ceases. All government is given into the hands of the council. Its power is supreme. This system of government certainly possesses the merit of unity and simplicity. The council is composed of mayor, aldermen, and councilors, the first two being selected by the last. In Scotland the mayor is called provost, and the councilors, with magis. terial duties, are called bailies, whose functions somewhat resemble those of English aldermen. All appointments are in the hands of the council, those two important officials, the town clerk and the treasurer, being selected by it. The council also appoints the chiefs or superintendents of departments. A vacancy is usually advertised, applications from all parts of England are sent in, no "political" appointments are made, but the most thoroughly qualified to be found are chosen, and the tenure is secure, so long as usefulness and faithfulness continue. The important position which these heads occupy is illustrated by that of the Medical Officer of Health, who collects statistics and with these as a guide incites to activity and directs the vast department of health, with its executive head and great army of inspectors and assistants. Another example is the Engineer of Public Works, who has charge of engineering projects involving such skill and outlay of money as the Glasgow water-works, conveying water from Loch Katrine thirty-four miles in the highlands, or water to Birmingham from the Elan, a distance of eighty miles.

The office of mayor.

The council chooses the mayor, and usually from its own number. He presides at meetings of the council. It is not a position of responsibility and power. He makes no appointments and has no veto upon the ordinances. The office is usually a reward for past services and is mainly one of honor and dignity.

The character of the councilors.

in the United States, what induces such men to accept these offices with no salary. The reply is found in an examination of the different commercial, political, and social conditions prevailing in the two countries.

Business opportunities of all kinds are few in England compared with the number of similar openings in this country. The result is that the supply of those well qualified as lawyers, doctors, or for industrial careers far exceeds the demand. Also, public offices are very few in Great Britain compared with our array of positions, federal, state, county, and municipal.

Hence, for those desiring a career of usefulness, municipal offices become prizes, and the former worthy occupants of such offices have made them positions of honor in the public esteem. But the most fundamental reason in explanation of the high class of British munici pal officials is found in the fact that they are not crowded together on a party electoral "slate," but the small number of elected offices makes for the voters a clear and strong issue, and the electors respond by seeking the best men for the offices.

The practical effect upon the character of municipal service is great. The city government is managed according to the best business methods and principles. Through the expert service the most advanced scientific ideas direct the conduct of the different departments. Like great entrepreneurs of individual enterprises, these city councilors plan for long periods ahead, having the requisite courage, knowledge, foresight, and, above all, the support of public



1. The Ultimate Source of Municipal Power or Authority During the Different Periods of English History.

Perhaps this should have been mentioned 2. first, since it is the pivot upon which turns the success of municipal government in Great Britain. Their character may be summed up in the statement that they are usually reliable business men of considerable enterprise and power of initiative. The question immediately arises

a. What analogy between the government of English cities before the reform of 1835 and that of American cities at the present time?

b. Has municipal rule in England grown more or less democratic?

The Arguments Pro and Con for the English Electorate.

a. Should the non-resident business men of the city have a municipal vote? b. Why cannot the "slum" element in English cities be "worked" in elections?

c. Should women have a municipal vote?

d. What advantage in making householding a qualification for voting?

e. Has a city corporation a right to exclude certain classes from voting?

f. What general effect upon the character of the electorate have the franchise qualifi cations in English cities?

e. What is the effect of a multiplicity of elective offices?

f. Is it democratic to have few elective offices?


The Development of Democracy in England

3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Govern- from a Municipal Standpoint. ment by a Council.

a. What advantage in having a simple system of government, easily understood by all


b. What objections have been made to in creasing the power of the council in American cities?

c. How far can the excellence of English municipal management be traced to the supremacy of the council?

4. The Character of English Municipal Officials. a. Is there less public spirit or more desire for money-making in the United States than in England?

b. Why do not American cities, as a rule, secure as good services as English?

c. How far do party politics influence the selection of English councilors?

d. Is there a political machine in England?


Municipal Government in Great Britain,
Albert Shaw (Century Co.)

History of Town Government:
English Economic History.. ..Ashley
Growth of English Industry and Com-
Municipal Government in Continental Europe,
Albert Shaw


Municipal Home Rule.....Frank J. Goodnow
Municipal Problems.... ....Frank J. Goodnow
City Government in the United States,
The American Commonwealth...
. Bryce

A. R. Conkling

Civil Government in the United States,

John Fiske

MRS. W. G. L. TAYLOR, University of Nebraska.

Studies in the Sources of Grecian History

HE studies in the MONTHLY during the present year may be used to supplement other source books on general history, or in connection with narrative texts, when there are no copies of source books in the school. In the latter case, two hours per week might be devoted to source study, the method employed being that described in the introduction to "Studies in European and American History," a reprint of the articles written by Professor Caldwell and myself for the Journal of 1896-97.

The extracts are all made from easily accessi ble English translations, and the exact title of each work will be given once, while the reference to volume and page will be given after each extract.

No attempt has been made to rewrite the source. The translation has been faithfully reproduced, and the omission of words, phrases, or sentences has been indicated by stars.

Next to the study of an extract from the

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Lang, Leaf, Myers: The Iliad of Homer.
Macmillan & Co., New York, 1889.

The folk began to perish, because Atraides had done dishonor to Chryses, the priest. For he had come to the brought a ranson beyond telling; Achaians' fleet ships to win his daughter's freedom, and and made his

prayer unto all the Achaians and most of all to the two sons of Atreus, orderers of the host: "Ye sons of Atreus and all ye well-grieved Achaians, now may the Gods that dwell in the mansions of Olympus grant you to lay waste the city of Priam and to fare happily homeward; only set ye my dear child free, and accept the ransom. . . . Then all the other

his goodly ransom; yet the thing pleased not the heart of Achaians cried assent to reverence the priest and accepted Agamemnon, son of Atreus, but he roughly sent him away. (Pages 1, 2.)

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"Nor do thou, son of Peleus, think to strive with a king, might against might seeing that no common honor pertaineth to a sceptered king, to whom Zeus apportioneth glory. Though thou be strong yet his is the greater place, for he is king over more." (Page 10.) Then woke he (Agamemnon) from sleep, and the heavenly voice was in his ears. So he rose up sitting, and donned his soft tunic, fair and bright, and cast around him his great cloak, and beneath his glistering feet he bound his fair sandals, and over his shoulder cast his silver studded sword, and grasped his sire's sceptre, imperishable forever, wherewith he took his way amid the mail-clad Achaians' ships. (Page 22.)

Now went the goddess, Dawn, to high Olympus, foretelling daylight to Zeus and all the immortals; and the king bad the clear voiced heralds summon to the assembly the flowing haired Achaians. So did those summon and these gathered with speed.

But first the council of the great hearted elders met beside the ship of King Nestor the Pylos-born. And he that had assembled them framed his cunning council: "Hearken, my friends. A dream from heaven came to me in my sleep through the ambrosial night.... So spake the dream and was flown away, and sweet sleep left me. So come, let us now call to arms as we may the sons of the Achaians. But first I will speak to make trial of them as is fitting, and will bid them flee with their benched ships; only do ye from this side and from that seek to hold them back."

So spake he and sat him down; and there stood up among them Nestor who was king of sandy Pylos. He of good intent made harangue to them. So spake he and led the way forth from the council and all the other sceptered chiefs rose with him and obeyed the shepherd of the host; and the people hastened to them. . From ships and huts, before the low beach, marched forth their many tribes and companies to the place of assembly. . . . And the place of assembly was in an uproar, and the earth echoed again as the hosts sat them down, and there was turmoil. Nine heralds restrained them with shouting, if perchance they might refrain from clamor and harken to their kings. And hardly at the last would the people sit and keep them to their benches and cease from noise. Then stood up Lord Agamemnon, bearing his scepter. Thereon he leaned and spake his saying to the Argives. (Pages 22-24.) So said she, and he knew the voice of the goddess speaking to him and set him to run, and cast away his mantle the which his herald gathered up that waited on him. And himself he went to meet Agamemnon, son of Atreus, and at his hand received the septre of his sires, imperishable forever, wherewith he took his way amid the ships of the mail-clad Achaians.


Whenever he found one that was a captain and a man of mark, he stood by his side, and refrained him with gentle words: "Good sir, it is not seemly to affright thee like a coward, but do thou sit thyself, and make all thy folk sit down. For thou knowest not yet clearly what is the purpose of Atreus' son. And we heard not all of us what he spake in the council. Beware lest in his anger he evilly entreat the sons of the Achaians." But whatever man of the people he saw and found him shouting, him he drave with his sceptre and chode with loud words: "Good

sir, sit still, and harken to the words of others that are thy betters; but thou art no warrior and a weakling, never reckoned whether in battle or in council. In no wise can we Achaians all be kings here. A multitude of masters is no good thing; let there be one master, one king, to whom the son of crooked counseling Cronos had granted it, even the sceptre and the judgments that he may rule among you." (Page 27.)

Now all the rest sat down and kept their place upon the benches. Only Thersites still chattered on, the uncontrolled of speech, whose mind was full of words, many and disord erly, wherewith to strive against the chiefs idly and in no good order, but even as he deemed that he should make the Argives laugh. And he was ill favored beyond all men that came to Ilios. Bandy-legged was he and lame of one foot, and his two shoulders rounded, arched down upon his chest; and over them his head was warped and a scanty stubble sprouted on it. Hateful was he to Achilles above all and to Odysseus, for them he was wont to revile. But now with shrill shout he poured forth his upbraidings upon goodly Agamemnon. . So spake Thersites, reviling Agamemnon, shepherd of the host, but goodly Odysseus came straight to his side, and looking sternly at him with hard words rebuked him: "Thersites, reckless in words, shrill orator though thou art, refrain thyself, nor aim to strive singly against kings. But I will tell thee plain,

and that I say shall even be brought to pass: if I find thee again raving as now thou art, then may Odysseus' head no longer abide upon his shoulders, if I take thee

not and strip from thee thy garments, thy mantle and tunic that cover thy nakedness, and for thyself send thee weeping to the fleet ships, and beat thee out of the assembly with shameful blows."

So spake he, and with his staff smote his back and shoulders and he bowed down and a big tear fell from him, and a bloody weal stood up from his back beneath the golden sceptre.

Then he sat down and was amazed, and in pain with helpless look wiped away the tear. But the rest, though they were sorry, laughed lightly at him, and thus would one speak, looking at another standing by: "Go to, of a truth Odysseus hath wrought good deeds without number ere now but now is this thing the best by far. Never again, forsooth, will his proud soul henceforth bid him revile the kings with slanderous words." So said the common sort. (Pages 28, 29.)

1. How many parts in the Homeric government? 2. What were they called? 3. Which part had the most power? 4. What would you call such a government? 5. How did the chief ruler evidently obtain office? 6. Did he have any insignia of office? 7. Was he distinguished outwardly from other men? (See I.-C.) 8. What officers assisted the ruler? 9. Did he live in an ostentatious manner? 10. Enumerate all his duties. 11. Who advised the chief ruler? 12. Was he obliged to accept this advice? 13. How did he make known his wishes to the people? 14. Were the people obliged to obey? 15. How could the ruler enforce his wishes? 16. Was he always successful? 17. By what right did he rule? 18. How was the second part of the government composed? 19. Who called it together? 20. What was done in it? 21. How was the session closed? 22. What was the use of such a body? 23. What was the third part of the government? 24. How was it composed? 25.

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