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acquires peculiar habits or mannerisms that detract from his efficiency. A college student had formed the habit of selecting a single hair, when thinking deeply, and pulling it out. He had apparently had many periods of deep study, for there was a patch of his head two inches long and one wide where he had pulled out all the hair. Some bite their nails, others. chew their pencils, tap with their feet, or drum with their fingers, or manifest some other form of nervousness. To correct these habits Prof. James has laid down the following principles:

1. Take care to launch yourself into the habit to be desired with as strong and decided an initiative as possible.

2. Never suffer an exception to occur until a new habit is securely rooted in your life.

3. Seize the very first possible opportunity to act on every resolution you make and on every emotional prompting you may experience in the direction of the habit you aspire to gain.

4. Don't preach too much to your children or abound in good talk in the abstract.

5. Keep the faculty of effort alive in you by a little gratuitous exercise every day.

He further states that, "Could the young but realize how soon they will become mere walking bundles of habits they would give more heed to their conduct while in the plastic state. We are spinning our own fates, good and evil, never to be undone. Every smallest stroke of virtue or vice leaves its never-so-little scar." This leads to the next thought, namely, that habit determines character. Yes, habit is character.

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It is therefore essential that the greatest care be used to form in our children the right mental, moral, physical and spiritual habits. The habit of reading good literature, of clean expression, of industry, of wholesome play, of obedience, of thrift, organizing one's resources, and of making the most of one's opportunities, all are fundamental characteristics of good character and of the best education. "Education is for behavior, and habits are the stuff of which behavior consists."

Should the College Student Borrow? CHARLES W. COULTER, DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY, WESTErn RESERVE UNIVERSITY, CLEVELAND, OHIO.

I

'N these days of rising prices the ambitious American youth faces the increasingly serious problem of financing his way through college. If, when he leaves the "High" or "Prep" school, he is not the proud possessor of the necessary minimum in his own right, one of a number of courses is open to him. If there burns in him the light of genius, he •HHMM-BHRONO MJK • may secure a scholarship to meet the majority of his legitimate expenses. Such provisions are multiplying with the development of specially designated college endowments. They provide for the training of a small percentage of the promising academic material, but necessarily they are inadequate to cover all deserving cases. Failing this, he may borrow from his more fortunately situated kindred, if indeed he chances to have them, maintaining in this way a commendable spirit of independence, and defending his headlong plunge by the optimistic and presumably justified assumption that this procedure will more than commensurately increase his efficiency and earning power when graduated. Or he may seek a generously endowed small college, so interested in its own persistence that it is willing to encourage with gratuities even unpromising scholastic material. Fortunately there are few of these schools, as a persistence in this practice involves their own disintegration or leads to a radical change of policy. More frequently, however, he varies the procedure by laboring in the summer at whatever lucrative employment he can find, with the purpose of securing the necessary funds to carry him through a few months' training, and, trusting to luck or the bureau of self-help, does the "jobs he can pry loose" in the academic year to see him through. In the schools situated in the larger cities the latter method is by far the most popular with both the students and their parents, although it is patently prejudicial to the ultimate best interests of both.

One can scarcely blame the average parent for viewing with prideful favor any activity which even looks toward self-support on the part of the budding undergraduate. It evidences the virtues of self-reliance, initiative and independence. Parental encouragement is reflected in such expressions as "God helps those who help themselves"; "You can't keep a good man down"; "Adversity is a spur to ambition"; "Only one who earns it knows the value of money," etc., ad inf. Moreover, the student is surfeited with the twaddle of what his grandfather and his uncle did, and of how they got along, to say nothing of the emphasis he hears laid upon the popular esteem in which the man is held who has made his own way through college. There is much to be said for this vacation labor, with the double advantage of self-discipline and financial economy. It occupies months of the year when even experienced academicians, in this climate, find mental concentration difficult. But the marked trend of American education (and it is especially obvious in the crisis of war time) is toward depressing all academic studies of undergraduate colleges into two, or at most three, years, and graduating the student at the conclusion of that time. This is seen in the growing influence of many summer schools, notably Chicago and Columbia Universities, which afford facilities and instruction for the student throughout the entire year, thus saving to him a year or more of the most energetic period of his life. This trend has attained a quite definite direction in Missouri, where the legislature has established Junior Colleges, covering the last two years of high school and the first two undergraduate years, obviating, in the majority of cases, the necessity of spending the extra precious time in college. It is seen quite as plainly in the radical suggestions of our Commissioner General of Education, that the essentials of a college course be offered in the freshman and sophomore years and the student be graduated straightway to the Bachelor degree-an arrangement which, to be practicable, would require a couple of high speed years of more than accustomed length. So that even the vacation labor presently may vanish.

Under present conditions the danger of depending upon one's summer efforts for financial support lies in the insidious tempta

tion to carry these efforts into the college year. The practice of working through the term seems at first to have been a reaction against the aristocratic dignity of the Old World schools, such as Oxford and Cambridge. Indeed, a similar situation obtained also in our own early South, where, through the association of manual labor with slavery, the student who soiled his hands placed himself in an inferior class. There are English colleges where, even today, to work in the college year is a disgrace. The early European university was for "gentlemen" only. Self-help was not favored. It was out of accord with the traditions and usages of such institutions. But America was a democracy, especially in the North, where labor was honorable, and, ostensibly at least, there were no class distinctions; so that an element of prestige actually accrued to the man who worked his way through college. Every one was anxious to help him. Business men were not slow to capitalize the popular sympathy for the student collecting bills or selling paltry wares to win a scholarship, or merely to put himself through. Writers have urged the employment of college students for part time office help, as a favor to the student and a duty to the institution. Is it any wonder, then, that term-time self-help in recent years has been so grossly overdone, or that its effects upon the life and work of the student have been so detrimental as to elicit comment even by the layman? One need only consult the Rhodes Scholarship reports to discover how unfavorably the pick of our American students are compared with the product of Old World schools of equal grade. Moreover, experience has justified the business man's proverbial distrust of our average college graduate when it is a matter of accuracy, patience, initiative, or indeed real enterprise. He says, "The boy has developed too perfect a technique for just getting by," or, "His inoculation with a college training calculated to produce the symptoms of thoroughness and precision didn't take."

For this state of affairs our colleges are not entirely blameless. Their gradual adjustments in hours and standards, their provision for self-help bureaus to facilitate outside-of-college employment, has favored a situation which is yearly growing more serious. Some of our foremost schools advertise that "two-thirds of those

enrolled earn a part or all of their way through college." But what is intended to encourage the deserving lad who might otherwise miss the opportunity for college training, doubly urges those whose commercial instincts are already over-keen. A young man in college this year proudly confided to his instructor that he had made enough in the summer to finance himself for the year. It did not prevent him, however, when he returned to college in the fall, from seeking out three "jobs" to occupy his attention throughout the afternoons and evenings, and these he boasted "provide a handsome surplus above all current expenses." Such a man is undoubtedly to be commended for his business acumen, but why say he is attending college? Why, after four years of commercial scheming, academic bluffing, and much crawling, send him out with the sheepskin of a reputable institution? This case is extreme, I confess, but under even approximately such conditions only a "phenom" could hope for a creditable academic standing. Cramped, hurried hours for study, mental diversion and intellectual over-tiredness amounting almost to coma in the classroom, make him a pitiable problem to the instructor and the school, His grades are a source of disappointment and chagrin, and in no sense an index of his high native ability. He faces the added temptation to excuse himself, on the ground of outside-of-college activity, for leaving undone the things he ought to have done. He falls down between two splendid purposes, defeats his own aim in attending college, and becomes proficient neither as a man of business nor as a scholar. The over-estimated benefits of waiting on table, acting as chauffeur, working in a cloak-room, operating the switchboard in a downtown office, or running a part-time barber shop are more than counterbalanced by the loss of self-respect invariably resulting from doing what is beneath his best, "putting one over" on the instructor, or forming the habit of "just getting by."

This trend would not be so disastrous but for its deleterious effects upon the college. The curse of mediocrity must fall upon an institution which, though its studies are arranged upon an all-day basis, gradually temporizes with this growing custom of term-time working. It is foredoomed to greater mediocrity, and

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