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describing the "Duties of Welfare Supervisors for Women." This office has been created because of the entrance of women into industry. Its duties are to obtain and to maintain a healthy staff of workers and to help in maintaining satisfactory conditions of work. The Supervisor is to ascertain the needs within the factory-intra-mural welfare; outside the factory-extra-mural welfare.

The scope of the Supervisor shows how particular is the oversight England extends to these new workers. It is a paternal care, but one carefully devised to protect the individual in personal liberty.

The canteen is most carefully considered. The Welfare Supervisor sees that suitable food, rapidly and punctually served, is provided for the women workers, that women can be provided with proper food before starting to work. The canteen is to be made as restful and comfortable as possible, so that rest as well as food will be provided.

No development of the war has been more revolutionary than England's attitude toward women. Their eager response to the industrial needs of the country-it is stated that seven-eighths of the shells which are now being fired in France are being made by women-was met by the government's prompt act to enfranchise them. Justice is an Anglo-Saxon habit.

"It cannot be doubted," states the Springfield Union, "that the world is for woman suffrage. Since the war began 40,000,000 women in Russia, Denmark, England and Iceland have been enfranchised, and agitation for the vote has reached the women of such obscure countries as Korea and India. It may be questioned, though, whether this country is for it at all." Surely the United States is a great world power and belongs in that world that has no doubts about this question-the world of democratic ideals.

We are indebted to the Director of Vocational Education at Washington for the following interesting information. He says: "Congress, without dissenting vote, has delegated to the Federal Board for Vocational Education the great task of re-educating and rehabilitating for civil life and usefulness such of our wounded. soldiers and sailors as may be proper subjects. Available statistics show the number to average about 10,000 per million men per annum. In other words, on the present army and navy strength, together with auxiliaries, we are certain of almost 30,000 men to be subjects for re-education this year. As the strength grows the number of men grows. With the more sanguinary nature of the fighting in open warfare, instead of trench stalemate, the average may run to higher figures. Experience of our allies shows that over 80 per cent of permanently disabled men can be re-educated for useful, self-sustaining,

wage-earning employment. Many of them will be made into expert artisans, mechanics and semi-professionals, and will be a most valuable asset to the country in carrying on the work back of the lines, releasing able-bodied men for the front; and also of great use to the country in the civil readjustments after the war when the depleted ranks of skilled men will not be able to supply the demand. The work is of intense interest to every man in the ranks, every man subject to draft, and the families and relatives of these men, and to Americans generally. To know that, even though broken and shattered in the fighting, there does not exist a future of inadequately pensioned, idle days, or an occupation that is semi-mendicancy, but that the disabled man may be fitted for useful, respectable, wageearning occupation, and in many instances will make more than he ever made before he was hurt, should add strength to his arms and resolution to his course. It should comfort them and their families, and make those who are not privileged to bear arms feel that our country is acting with high justice toward the men who are bearing the brunt."

In July, 1917, at the University of Missouri, preliminary steps were taken toward the formation of a national educational fraternity for college women. Seven such societies were already in existence as local organizations, and each of the seven was represented at the conference. Since that time, the constitution proposed at this meeting has been ratified by each of the local chapters, and thus there comes into existence the national honorary educational fraternity, PI LAMBDA THETA. The chapters are located at the following institutions: University of Pittsburgh, University of Pennsylvania, University of Syracuse, University of Minnesota, University of Kansas, University of Missouri and University of Washington. The aim of the fraternity is to establish a lofty code of ethics and etiquette, to foster professional spirit and high standard of scholarship and honor, and to encourage the pursuit of advanced courses in education. Membership is granted to juniors and seniors and graduate students in approved colleges of education. Requirements include high grade of scholarship, professional ability, and certain personal characteristics. The emblem of the fraternity is a gold key, based upon the Egyptian Key of Life. Katharine Foulke, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa., is corresponding secretary.

Dr. Glen Levin Swiggett, formerly of the University of Tennessce and more recently Assistant Secretary General of the Second PanAmerican Scientific Congress, has been appointed specialist in commercial education in the Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior. In this new work the Bureau proposes to investigate local,

state and national educational opportunities for business training, to recommend courses of study, and to co-operate through advice and counsel in the establishment of the proper relations between opportunity for training and the needs of business.

A plan which is thoroughly in accord with the democratic spirit of our age and this free land of America, has been inaugurated by Hon. P. P. Claxton, United States Commissioner of Education. He proposes to secure for workingmen some of the higher intellectual pleasures and privileges which have heretofore been eligible to the more highly favored few who have had larger means and greater control of their time. Mr. Claxton thinks that the workers have a capacity for intellectual pursuits which is fully equal to that of those who have the means and therefore the time to attend the colleges and university courses. Assuming an eight-hour working day, with the liberal allowance of ten hours a day for sleep, there remain more than 2,600 hours a year, of which at least 730, it is urged, "might well be given to the higher education." Self-education it would. not altogether be, in Dr. Claxton's plan, for in the great cities he would have temples built-for New York City one of them "every ten blocks or so"-"where the laborers could gather for a couple of hours a day to the nourishing and enlarging of their minds." He thinks that the money ought to be obtainable to carry out this idea, and that the workers will welcome such opportunities and hasten to avail themselves of them,-to their own relief from the monotony of the everlasting grind of labor,-and that they would be healthier, happier and more skillful in their toil. The scheme seems at first thought somewhat Utopian. But so have many other schemes which have in the end worked out into a large success. Certainly there have been here and there successful experiments along these very lines. Ruskin, in England, met with a most encouraging success in his lecture courses for workingmen. Our own Peter Cooper established his Working Men's Institute, which has ministered to thousands in ways quite similar to those advocated by the Commissioner. The plan is worth trying. It is an educational idea quite worthy of its broad-minded and far-seeing sponsor. The new age is upon us. New demands and new opportunities confront us. Optimism, broad-mindedness and courage can accomplish wonders. Every educator should applaud the announcement of our Chief's ambitious scheme.

Educational classes in the army camps form an important part of the work of the Committee on Training Camp Activities. This work is maintained with the help of local committees. One of the ways in which these local committees are co-operating most effectively

with the camp forces is in the securing of teachers of French and other subjects. The men are eager to prepare themselves for the time when, "somewhere in France," they will meet the men with whom they are to fight side by side. The War Recreation Boards in many cities are making this possible by providing teachers, not only at the camps but in the communities. Atlanta, Ga., for instance, is furnishing French teachers for the Y. M. C. A. educational director at camp; Burlington, Vt., Charleston, S. C., Chicago, Ill. (where a five-hour trip is involved for the teachers going to Highland Park), Indianapolis, Ind., Pensacola, Fla., San Francisco, Cal., Spartanburg, S. C., Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn., and may other cities are performing similar service. In Alexandria, La., a grammar school has been opened in the evening for classes in French and history. In Chattanooga the Board of Education is attempting to supply the educational material necessary for the 300 men enrolled in classes in camp, many of whom can neither read nor write. Three hundred and fifty arithmetics sent to the War Recreation Board by the American Book Company of Cincinnati are being put into excellent use at camp.

The meeting of the International Kindergarten Union, held in Chicago June 24 to 28, was of special interest, because it marked the silver anniversary of that organization. The delegates and visiting kindergartners, nearly one thousand in number, represent the 18,000 kindergartners and the 500,000 children in the kindergartens of the country. At the first meeting Mrs. Mary C. C. Bradford, President of the N. E. A., was the chief speaker. Her subject was "The Child in a War-Modified World." Among the other topics were Experiments in Measuring the Progress of Kindergarten Children," by Alma S. Binzel, Minneapolis; "The War and Educational Reconstruction," Superintendent John W. Withers, St. Louis; "What the Kindergarten Can Do for Democracy," Dr. Henry Neuman, Brooklyn; "The Kindergarten and the Immigrant," Jane Addams, Chicago; "A Kindergarten Unit in France," Fanniebelle Curtis, New York City. One of the most striking features of the convention was the procession of delegates with their varied banners from the different states. One of the most interesting days was that on which the members were the guests of the University of Chicago, at Mandell Hall. The most impressive single meeting was the Silver Anniversary Celebration held in the Blackstone Theater. At this meeting there were on the stage several of the charter members present at the first meeting, held in connection with the Columbian Exposition; ten of the fourteen past presidents of the organization; kindergarten pioneers from different parts of the country, and guests of honor.

CONCISE ENGLISH GRAMMAR. By George Lyman Kittredge and Frank Edgar Farley. Ginn & Co. Price 72 cents.

A well-built short manual for the study of the principles of English grammar. There are three parts, dealing respectively with the Parts of Speech, Inflections and Syntax, and Analysis.. Well chosen "Exercises" are presented in each section.

A LABORATORY OUTLINE OF NEUROLOGY. By C. Judson Herrick and Elizabeth C. Crosby. W. B. Saunders Co. Price $1.00 net.

A highly technical and suggestive manual for medical students and those who are contemplating advanced courses in biology. Presents results of the latest scholarship and lays foundations for original experimentation and demonstration in a field of great interest and importance.

THE CADET MANUAL. Official Handbook for High School Volunteers of the U. S. By Major E. X. Steever III, U. S. A. and Major F. L. Frink, U. S. A. J. B. Lippincott Co. Price $1.50 net.

The High School Volunteers of the United States has become a national organization. It has come to stay, because some degree of military training is necessary for the sake of preparedness, and because it is useful in times of tranquility as one of the best methods of physical development. We have only to remember the marvelous improvement in physique and power of endurance which has so promptly followed enlistment in the army and navy to become convinced, first, that right methods of physical training had not been developed before the war, and secondly, that military training and experience of some of the conditions of actual service are eminently calculated to make a young man "fit" mentally and morally, as well as physically. It will be a long time before we shall go back to the old soft ways of the ante-bellum period. This manual provides full and clear directions for introducing a legitimate military discipline and training in high schools and colleges. It will make for better manhood, better citzenship, and for safety.

F. H. P.



LABORATORY MANUAL TO ACCOMPANY FOUNDATIONS OF CHEMISTRY. By Arthur A. Blanchard, Ph. D., and Frank B. Wade, B. S. American Book Company. Price 44 cents each.

These manuals are in loose-leaf form and have been in successful use for several years. A large number of experiments are given and are adaptable to different kinds of schools requiring varying practical exercises.

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