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(e) Characteristics of the play of adolescence.
(1) Group competition intense.

(2) Loyalty to groups.

(3) Subordination to leader and group.

(4) Games involve somewhat complex rules.
(5) Intellectual competition.

(a) Debates, declamation, essays, etc.

V. Religious and moral aspects.

(a) The time for conversions.

(1) A desire to become unselfish.

(2) Conversion provides an opportunity for these desires.

(3) The emotional intensity of this period makes 2 fertile field for conversions.

(b) Responsiveness to ideals.

(1) Hero worship.

(2) Idealism.

(3) Broad human interests.

The following books were freely consulted in preparing this outline:

Freeman: "How Children Learn."

Hall: "Adolescence."

Kirkpatrick: "Fundamentals of Child Study."

Miller: "Education For the Needs of Life."

Thorndike: "Notes on Child Study."

Tracy: "Psychology of Childhood."

Beauty and the Public.

LUCY D. TAYLOR, HEAD OF DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SCHOOL ARTS, BOSTON, MASS.

T

¤ HE time has come for believers in and lovers of art to come forward with frank and clear statements of the reasons for this abounding faith in the value of art to every citizen. The vagaries of blind and deaf materialistic educators, themselves ignorant of the power which they are vainly trying to evaluate, need to be met openly and squarely by those workers in the arts who know from personal experience whereof they speak, in order that the message of the arts to our citizens may not be set aside for so-called practical reasons, which in too many cases prove to be but a mess of pottage.

Every one of us workers in the arts is assured from his own experience that joy in beauty is one of the great realities of life. We know that the creative life of the imagination is infinite in its power of giving meaning and value not alone to our personal experiences but to all knowledge, even to the broken lights of truth that men are discovering and proclaiming so vigorously under the supposedly magic name of science in this intensely materialistic age. We need no proof to convince us that when we reach the plane of thought where all our knowledge, our deepest emotion, and our ideals are welded together in creative imaginative expression, the scales of barbaric materialism drop from our eyes and we have a glimpse of the eternal verities of life. We are sorry for the people whose multitudinous possibilities for enrichment of life through loving beauty have been pushed aside for the time being by a peculiar pride in materialistic intelligence, a strange disease destructive of spiritual life, that is proudly hailed as indicative of progress in civilization. Our friends and allies, spirit and imagination, have been driven from the mental courts of these people by that forbidding foot-rule of practicability, Efficiency, just as though the infinite could really be measured by the finite products of limited human intelligence. But temporary banishment is not

extinction, and we look forward to the day when every one shall have this added joy in living because he has opened the windows of his mind to beauty. We know that without this joy in beauty a man is as one who limps along a rough and stony road which leads into barren wastes. We know that he has lost a part of his best heritage, a heritage with soul-satisfying potentialities, that he has squandered it in chasing the limited fragments of natural laws which he has gathered and made an end in themselves. We know, with a certainty that no human laboratory test can possibly furnish, that our life of the imagination is real life. He who doubts it is but a straggler by the wayside, hardened in his habits of thought to the point where with no native impetus that urges him on the road toward the City Beautiful he has closed his mind to all language but that of words and measurable actions, and lost one of the most satisfying and inspiring realities of life.

This adult wayfarer, so proud in his material, finite possessions,, is after all only a child like the rest of us, but he has lost temporarily his natural joyous feeling for beauty. We would like to tempt him out of his formidable castle of thought long enough to play with the sunbeams for even a moment. We know that he needs them, even though he refuses to recognize the fact, and, sad though it is, more or less openly makes fun of us as dreamers and idealists. Are the children of the future generations to be deprived of their rightful heritage because of his pride in the idols of mate→ rialistic efficiency that he has erected? How can he teach the children to play with the sunbeams when he does not know that they exist except by the evidence of other people? And is not the real mission of all adults, directly or indirectly, to provide for the future of coming generations?

Joy in beauty in some degree is the rightful heritage of every child. The seeds sprout at some period for every individual; too often the conditions are not right for the culture of the plant. It fades and withers undeveloped, unproductive. In this time of stress, of the shifting and trying of men's ideals, we cannot afford to let a single child lose this heritage which gives meaning to life, making success, money and comforts more than an end in themselves. The future of our national life, the future of coming generations, lies with our children.

The seed that fails to germinate in them now means barrenness somewhere later. The work of our generation is to hold back the flood of barbarism and materialism, to keep the soil conditions right, that our children may so grow as in their turn to nurture the plant of civilization and bring the blossom to fruition. We cannot afford to be blind to the fact that the reconstruction period for all of us who are leaders of children is here now. After the war will be too late for some of them. The mission of every teacher of art is clearly defined-to preserve and pass on to future generations that rich treasure of life-beauty-by making the love and sympathetic regard for it a very real part of the life of all of our children.

Every individual in the universe can have this joy in beauty because beauty is in his own attitude of mind, is in his own imagination. He does not create beauty with his hands, with sounds, with words. Representation, music and literature are only the forms which some great lovers of beauty use in the hope of making their imaginative ideas accessible to other people. The beauty of a picture is not in its technique, the beauty of a poem is not in its versification, the beauty of a symphony is not in its structure. These all have styles that change, but beauty still lives regardless of all the styles that have harassed the critics during the ages. The beauty lies in the soul stirring, imaginative creation in the mind, for which they serve as symbols. Their beauty lives for the individual in his imagination, just as they exist in the imagination of their creators, but only in that measure in which he feels sympathetic regard and makes an effort to reconstruct them imaginatively.

It is this truth which brands as an arch fallacy the artificial separation made by some materialistic educators between the creators and the appreciators of beauty. Every appreciator is of necessity a creator in some degree. Though undoubtedly the greatest appreciator is the creator to whom the imaginative product is so clear and vivid that it takes very definite, tangible form and is expressed symbolically through some medium to other people, that is the artist, the fact remains that every one who tries to understand the language of beauty and build something in his own. mind can very truly be called a creator. Sincere appreciation

without some measure of this imaginative creation is impossible. The real distinction that we have to make is between the creator who uses one of the languages of beauty skillfully in all its complexities and the creator whose forms of expression are very limited. All this is simply one way of saying that not every creator works with actual tools. The child without talent in the manipulation of paint and brush may learn to get much joy out of beautiful pictures because he understands their beauty and makes something from them in his own imagination which unfolds a bit of life's richness to him. Most people are hampered because they have no form of expression that they can use freely. Nature has not provided them with the particular tendencies to co-ordination, or talent, as we call it, which makes it possible for them to travel far enough along the road of self-expression in any one of the arts to express themselves very clearly. They turn naturally to the lesser arts and to the products of other people's expression to use and adapt them to fit their own needs. They express themselves with the products near at hand, their clothes, their home settings, and their amusements. And let us not forget that every effort these people make in the home field to express themselves does clarify and intensify their thoughts and feelings, thus tremendously enhancing their appreciation. But their joy in beauty is not limited to these simple concrete expressions. The whole field of the world's greatest art is theirs to share, if they but bring to it this earnest effort to recreate what the artist has tried to express. He who appreciates is truly a creator, for appreciation is only a result of imaginative creation. The greater the appreciation and the stronger the creative impulse the more likely are they to demand concrete expression. Great appreciation, with its strong creative impulse, bursts naturally into concrete expressions, which may range from the selection of a color scheme for a room to the designing of a great cathedral.

The only outlet for creative expression in the pictorial and decorative arts for the great mass of our people is in the field of home utilities. People are too busy, their talent too limited, to permit of any other expression. If they are to have their experiences enriched with a ringing message of joy which will be permanently vital, they must be taught to organize and create

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