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The greater the degree of emphasis the longer will be the slide, and the wider the range of melody, thus:

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This is very noticeable when we reiterate a phrase, with increasing emphasis, as in calling or commanding : —

Come here!

Come here!


HERE I say!

There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged. Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable; and, let it come! I repeat it, let it come!

See also what is said under Volume and Force.

Circumflex inflections (~) show a double meaning, as when we say "oh yes," meaning just the opposite. It is heard in sarcasm and irony:

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"Very good!" replied the pendulum; "it is vastly easy for you, Mistress Dial, who have always, as everybody knows, set yourself up above me, it is vastly easy for you, I say, to accuse other people of laziness! you who have nothing to do all your life but to stare people in the face, and to amuse yourself with watching all that goes on in the kitchen."

"The Discontented Pendulum."

The Monotone is an almost level tone heard in great solemnity or monotony; as in the following examples: —

The muffled drum's sad roll has beat

The soldiers' last tattoo:

Break, break, break, on thy cold, gray stones, O sea.

It is often heard in calling

Hello-o-o-o! Co-o-o-me!

Analyze the following example for inflection, emphasis, and grouping:

"Now," resumed the dial, "may I be allowed to inquire if that exertion is at all fatiguing or disagreeable to you? "Not in the least," replied the pendulum; "it is not of six strokes that I complain, nor of sixty, but of millions."

"Very good,” replied the dial; "but recollect that, although you may think of a million of strokes in an instant, you are required to execute but one; and that, however often you may hereafter have to swing, a moment will always be given you to swing in."-"That consideration staggers me, I confess," said the pendulum. "Then I hope," resumed the dial plate, "that we shall all return to our duty immediately; for the maids will lie in bed if we stand idling thus."

"The Discontented Pendulum."


Thoughts and pictures do not require much variety in the volume of voice, though we may increase the depth and volume in describing vast or noble things, and diminish it in suggesting delicacy, daintiness, or weakness.

Majestic monarch of the cloud!

Who rear'st aloft thy regal form,
To hear the tempest trumpings loud,
And see the lightning lances driven,

When strive the warriors of the storm,
And rolls the thunder drum of heaven;.
Child of the sun! to thee 'tis given

To guard the banner of the free,
To hover in the sulphur smoke,
To ward away the battle stroke,
And bid its blendings shine afar,
Like rainbows on the cloud of war,

The harbingers of victory! - Drake.

The boy smiled faintly so very, very faintly.

A river went singing a-down to the sea,

A-singing — low — singing —

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In expressing our emotions, however, we make use of many degrees of force. Violent anger is naturally associated with great energy. Be careful to avoid screaming, and to breathe frequently and deeply so as to keep a plentiful supply of breath in the lungs, and to have some energy always in reserve. In other words, feel that you can speak still louder if you choose. In a passage like the following do not exhaust yourself in the first few lines, but reserve the strongest outburst for the climax. Intensity is more effective than noise.

Burned Marmion's swarthy cheek like fire,
And shook his very frame for ire;

And "This to me!" he said,

"And 'twere not for thy hoary beard,
Such hand as Marmion's had not spared
To cleave the DOUGLAS' HEAD!
And, first, I tell thee, haughty peer,
He who does England's message here,
Although the meanest in her state,
May well, proud Angus, be thy mate:
And, Douglas, more, I tell thee here,
Even in thy pitch of pride,
Here, in thy hold, thy vassals near,
I tell thee, thou'rt DEFIED!
And if thou said'st I am not peer

To any lord in Scotland here,

Lowland or Highland, FAR or NEAR,

Lord Angus, thou hast LIED. — SCOTT, “Marmion."

We naturally speak more loudly in enthusiasm or for great emphasis, but the degree of volume varies with the emotion. Such a thought as "Forbid it, Almighty God," if declaimed violently, would be devoid of all solemnity, but the rest of the

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following passage would sound tame if spoken in our ordinary tones :

Gentlemen may cry

"It is in vain to extenuate the matter. peace, peace; but there is no peace. The war is actually begun. The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already

idle? What is it that

in the field! Why stand we here gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death." - PATRICK HENRY, "Speech before the Virginia Convention.”

Tender, gentle feelings are expressed in gentle tones and with caressing inflections, very different from the abrupt manner of declamatory speaking; as in the following lines:

He hears his daughter's voice,
Singing in the village choir,

And it makes his heart rejoice.

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It sounds to him like her mother's voice
Singing in Paradise!

He needs must think of her once more,

How in the grave she lies;

And with his hard, rough hand he wipes.

A tear out of his eyes.

– Longfellow, "The Village Blacksmith."

The whisper or half whisper is heard in secrecy, sometimes in fear; as


"How fearful!"


The medium or normal pitch and rate of movement are those which we use in ordinary conversation.

Serious ideas are spoken slowly and in a lower pitch than usual; as

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But the grandsire's chair is empty,

The cottage is dark and still;

There's a nameless grave on the battle-field,

And a new one under the hill.
And a pallid, tearless woman

By the cold hearth sits alone,

And the old clock in the corner

Ticks on with a steady drone.

Light, bright, jolly ideas and emotions usually have a higher pitch and more rapid rate of movement than ordinary; as Under the greenwood tree Who loves to lie with me, And tune his merry note

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For ordinary reading, stand easily with the weight on one foot, as described in the Fourth Reader of this series.

In strong emotions, the feet are wider apart, but usually the weight is on one foot. Do not shift uneasily from one foot to the other.

The body expands, and the head lifts in noble emotions and in powerful declamation.

The body relaxes in tenderness, and becomes very limp in expressing weakness or extreme fear.

The eyes open in surprise, alarm, and great excitement; they tend to close in suspicion and slyness.

We frown in anger; we lift the eyebrows in pain.

We smile in pleasure, we draw down the lips in suffering. But we must smile or grieve with the eyes as well, if we would be natural.

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