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2d, Let us see what accusations were brought against his disciples, and apostles. They also were accused of being enemies to Cesar. But passing over other accusations, we shall fix on what Stephen was accused of, as a fair specimen of what they were all charged with."This man ceaseth not to speak blasphemous words against this holy place, and the law: For we have heard him say, that this Jesus of Nazareth shall destroy this place, and shall change the customs which Moses delivered us." Enemies as the Jews were to the disciples of our Lord, did they even so much as insinuate the charge against them, that they ever threatened them with endless torments in hell? They say, that Stephen said "Jesus of Nazareth shall destroy this place," but did they ever say, that either Jesus, or Stephen said, that he would destroy them with everlasting misery in Gehenna or hell? No: let me advocate for once the cause of the Jews, they never brought such a charge against Christ or any of his followers. On this occasion, let it be remembered, that the accusers of Stephen were false witnesses, procured for the very purpose of finding him guilty. Now, does any man think, or can he suppose, that these false witnesses after saying Stephen said, "This Jesus of Nazareth shall destroy this place," would have forgotten to add, such an important charge "And he also said, that he would destroy us and all the wicked in hell to endless duration?"-The man, who can believe this to be a mere oversight in these witnesses, in not mentioning such a material charge against Stephen, is prepared to believe any thing. But they could not bring such an accusation against him or any of the first preachers, for as we have seen, none of them ever used the word Gehenna or hell in preaching either to Jews or Gentiles. Had they done so, all who had ever heard them preach, could have

been called as witnesses to prove, that it was a false accusation. Such a false charge, would have been in face of public opinion to the contrary. But let us see what were the accusations which the Gentiles brought against the followers of Christ. They accused them of turning the world upside down; of turning away much people, saying, that "they were no gods which were made with hands." In consequence of this they were accounted Atheists, enemies to the gods, and deserving to be abhorred of men. Now, give me leave to ask, was the charge ever brought against them in any shape, or by any person, that they ever threatened men with endless punishment in hell or Gehenna? No: all the jesuitical ingenuity in the world, cannot find a word said, which has such an appearance. Had the apostles then ever threatened the Gentiles with endless punishment in hell would they have failed to bring this as an accusation against them? Should it be objected here "have you not yourself shown in chap. i. sect. 3. that the heathen nations all believed in the doctrine of future punishment, and that the Jews learned this doctrine from their intercourse with them; how then could the heathen be offended with the apostles for teaching one of the tenets of their religion ?” To this I answer, that the heathen believed in a future. punishment in Hades, but observe that the apostles neither taught such a punishment in Hades, nor in Gehenna. This is a fact we think beyond all fair discussion. Not a word did any of the apostles say to the heathen about punishment in either of these places. If they had preached future punishment in Gehenna to them, they might have said, we have heard of future punishment in Hades, but why preach this new doctrine, a punishment in Gehenna? Their not preaching a punishment in Hades, show sthat they did not believe this heathen notion; and the Gen

tiles never accusing the apostles of threatening them with endless punishment in Gehenna, is a confirmation that no such doctrine was taught to the heathen world. Had the apostles indeed taught to the heathen, the doctrine of endless punishment of the wicked in Hades, we need not be surprised that they never accuse them, or find fault throughout the New Testament, for this was only inculcating the doctrine which they had learned from their own fables. But all know that the apostles did not teach this heathen notion of future eternal punishment in Hades. If they then taught eternal punishment of the wicked in Gehenna, the heathen had ground of accusation against them in thus speaking of a place of punishment so different from what they had learned from their fables. Should it be said here by way of objection to all this "as the Jews learned from the heathen first, the notion of future eternal punishment in consequence of their intercourse with them, so the heathen no doubt learned, in consequence of this mutual intercourse, that the Jews. called the place of this future punishment by the name of Gehenna, the most wretched place known to the Jews. This being the case, the heathen, to whom the apostles preached, had no occasion to bring any accusation on this subject against them." I must be indulged in a few remarks in reply to this objection, as these remarks strongly corroborate the evidence I have advanced, that Gehenna of the New Testament, was not meant to express a place of future eternal misery. I shall be brief and shall not much regard the order in which they are brought forward.

1st, Is it then admitted that the Jews first learned the doctrine of eternal punishment from their intercourse with the heathen? The objection seems to proceed on the presumption that this is true. This is admitting a

great deal. If it is not admitted why make the objection? If the Jews did not learn this doctrine from the heathen, let the book, chapter, and verse be named in the Old Testament, from which they could learn it. Dr. Campbell declares that Gehenna does not occur in this sense in the Old Testament. If not mentioned by the name Gehenna, in what other way is it taught there? If not taught in the Old Testament nor learned from the heathen, to what other source shall we refer its origin?

2d, The objection seems also to admit that Hades and Gehenna are only the heathen and Jewish names for the same place of eternal punishment. If this can be proved true, there was no reason why the Gentiles should accuse the apostles of threatening them with eternal punishment in Gehenna. All the difference in their views about this was, in using a Hebrew and a Greek name for the same place, which would have been to make them offenders for a word. But how is this to. be reconciled even with Dr. Campbell's statement, who, as we have seen, makes Hades and Gehenna two distinct places of future punishment; the first before, and the last after the resurrection of the dead? It never can be reconciled with the scripture account of these two places, which are so differently spoken of throughout the Bible. We think it would be difficult to select words to designate them more clearly as two very different places. This we think has been sufficiently shown, nor is it likely to be denied by any man, who has given attention to the scripture usage of these two words.

3d, If there be any truth or force in this objection, then, the apostles might, and indeed ought to have preached Hades and Gehenna to Jews and Gentiles as one place of future eternal punishment. This they might have done without incurring the displeasure of either,

and that with the utmost freedom, for they would only have been teaching a doctrine believed by both Jews and Gentiles. Why then, I ask, did they do neither? They are as silent concerning Hades, as a place of eternal punishment, as they are about Gehenna, and we have seen that this word is never used in any way by them. Why did they not use Hades and Gehenna as convertible words to express the same place of eternal punishment? Seeing Jews and Gentiles had learned from their mutual intercourse with each other, the name each gave to the place of eternal punishment, the apostles in preaching to Jews or Gentiles might have used both Hades and Gehenna, for both were alike understood by them.. But as they neither to Jews nor Gentiles preached an eternal punishment in either of these places, what is the inference we ought to draw from their conduct? As they did not preach it, we think it is fair to infer, that they did not believe this doctrine. If the Jews, in our Lord's day, then, believed that Gehenna was such a place of future punishment, the apostles paid as little regard to this notion of theirs, as they did to the Pagan notion of an eternal punishment in Hades.

4th, If the above objection is seriously urged and if it has any foundation in truth, it never after this can be urged as a reason why our Lord and his apostles said nothing concerning Gehenna to the Gentiles, because the Gentiles knew nothing about Gehenna. It is said that this was a word or figure they were unacquainted with, and that had it been used by them in speaking of future punishment, it could not have been understood by the Gentiles. The objection before us does away this, for it considers the Gentiles well acquainted with it. Yea, it will be impossible to prove that they were not. How could it be otherwise? For it is surely impossible that

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