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vently, and be a righteous man; for "the effectual | church of a patin or a chalice, be a sacrilegious fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much;" person, what is he that steals from the church of it is promised on no other terms. "Qualis vir, talis God (so far as lies in him) the fruit of all their holy oratio," is an old rule: "as is the man, such is his prayers; that corrupts the sacrifice, and puts coloprayer." "The prayer of the wicked is an abomi- | quintida into the cups of salvation, and mingles nation to the Lord," said Solomon; he cannot pre- death in the pottage provided for the children and vail for himself, much less for others. I remember disciples of the prophets? I can say no more, but that Bias being once in a storm, and a company of to expostulate with them in those upbraiding words villains in the ship, being affrighted, called upon of God, in the prophet: "Do they provoke me to their gods for help: "Cavete," said he, "ne vos dii anger, saith the Lord? do they not provoke theminteresse sentiant:" "take heed lest the gods per- selves to the confusion of their own faces ?"s ceive you to be here," lest we all perish for your "Confundentur divini, et operient vultus suos omsakes. And upon surer grounds it was that David nes" "all such divines shall be confounded, and said, "If I regard iniquity in my heart, the Lord shall cover their faces in the day of sad accounts." will not hear my prayer." And what then do you "Divini sunt, non theologi:" "they are diviners, think will be the event of those assemblies, where and not divines," witches rather than prophets; they he that presents the prayers of all the people, is are the sons of Bosor, and have no portion in the hateful to God? will God receive the oblation that economy of God. In short, if so much holiness as is presented to him by an impure hand? The Le- I formerly described, be required of him that is apvitical priests were commanded to wash before they pointed to preach to others, to offer spiritual sacrisacrificed:P and every man is commanded to repent fices for the people, to bless the people, to divert before he prays; "My son, hast thou sinned, do so judgments from them, to deprecate the wrath of no more;" and then, “ask pardon for thy former God, to make an atonement for them, and to reconfault." And can we hope that the minister, who, cile them to the eternal mercy ;-certain it is, that "with wrath and doubting," and covetousness, pre- though the sermons of a wicked minister may do sents the people's prayers, that ever those interces- some good, not so much as they ought, but some sions shall pierce the clouds, and ascend to the they can; yet the prayer of a wicked minister does mercy-seat, and descend with a blessing? Believe no good at all; it provokes God to anger, it is an it not a man that is ungracious in his life, can abomination in his righteous eyes. never be gracious in his office, and acceptable to God. We are abundantly taught this, by those excellent words of God by the prophet Micah: "The heads of Sion judge for reward, and the priests thereof teach for hire, and the prophets thereof divine for money; yet will they lean upon the Lord, and say, Is not the Lord among us?"r As if God had said, nothing is so presumptuous and unreasonable as to lean upon God, and think he will be among us, when the priests and the prophets are covetous and wicked. No, he declares it expressly, (v. 7.) “Then shall the seers be ashamed, and the diviners confounded, yea, they shall all cover their lips; for there is no answer of God." God will not answer; for sometimes the case is so, that, "though Noah, Daniel, and Job were there," God would not hear; that is, when the people are incorrigibly wicked, and the decree is irrevocably gone out for judgment. But there are other times, in which the prayers of innocent people, being presented by an ungracious minister and intercessor, are very much hindered in prevailing. In such cases, God is put to extraordinaries; and Christ and Christ's angels are then the suppletories, and, at the best, the people's prayers go alone, they want the assistance of the "angel of the church," and they get no help or furtherance from him, and probably very much hinderance: according to that of St. Gregory: "Cum is qui displicet, ad intercedendum mittitur, irati animus ad deteriora provocatur." Alexander hated to see Zercon, and, therefore, if he had interceded for Clytus, it would but have hastened his death a man's suit thrives the worse for having a hated intercessor. If, therefore, he that robs a Cap. iii. 11.

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P Exod. xxx. 40.

q Ecclus.

Thirdly: The ecclesiastical order is by Christ appointed to minister his Holy Spirit to the people; the priests, in baptism, and the holy eucharist, and prayer, and intercession; the bishop, in all these, and in ordination besides, and in confirmation, and in solemn blessing: now then consider what will be the event of this without effect: can he minister the Spirit, from whom the Spirit of God is departed? And, therefore, since all wickedness does "grieve the Spirit of God," and great wickedness defiles his temples, and destroys them unto the ground, and extinguishes the Spirit that drives iniquity away;— these persons are no longer spiritual men; "they are carnal, and sold under sin," and walk not in the Spirit; they are spiritual just as Simon Magus was a christian, or as Judas was an apostle; he had the name of it; but what says the Scripture?" He fell from it by transgression;" only this, as he that is baptized has for ever a title to the promises, and a possibility of repentance, and a right to restitution, until he renounces all, and never will or can repent; so there is in all our holy orders an indelible character, and they can, by a new life, be restored to all their powers; but in the mean time, while they abide in sin and carnality, the cloud is over the face of the sun, and the Spirit of God appears not in a fiery tongue, that is, not in material and active demonstrations; and how far he will be ministered by the offices of an unworthy man, we know not; only by all that is said in Scripture we are made to fear, that things will not be so well with the people, till the minister be better; only this we are sure of, that though one man may be much the worse for another man's sin, yet, without his own fault, no * Jer. vii. 19. t Mic. iii. 7.

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man shall perish; and God will do his work alone; and the Spirit of God, though he be ordinarily conveyed by ecclesiastical ministries, yet he also comes irregularly, and in ways of his own, and prevents the external rites, and prepossesses the hearts of his servants; and the people also have so much portion in the evangelical ministration, that if they be holy, they shall receive the Holy Ghost in their hearts, and will express him in their lives, and themselves also become kings and priests unto God, while they are zealous of good works. And to this purpose may the proverb of the Rabbins be rightly understood," Major est qui respondit amen,' quam qui benedicit;" "He that says amen,' is greater than he that blesses or prays;" meaning, if he heartily desires what the other perfunctorily, and with his lips only, utters, not praying with his heart, and with the acceptabilities of a good life, the "amen" shall be more than all the " prayer," and the people shall prevail for themselves, when the priest could not; according to the saying of Midrasich Tehillim. "Quicunque dicitamen,' omnibus viribus suis, ei aperientur portæ paradisi, sicut dictum est, et ingredietur gens justa :' "He that says amen,' with his whole power, to him the gates of Paradise shall be open, according to that which is said,and the righteous nation shall enter in." And this is excellently discoursed of by St. Austin, " Sacramentum gratiæ dat etiam deus per malos; ipsam vero gratiam non nisi per seipsum, vel per sanctos suos;" and, therefore, he gives remission of sins by himself, or by the members of the Dove; so that good men shall be supplied by God. But as this is an infinite comfort to the people, so it is an intolerable shame to all wicked ministers; the benefit which God intended to minister by them, the people shall have without their help, and whether they will or no; but because the people get nothing by their ministration, or but very little, the ministers shall never have their portion, where the good people shall inhabit to eternal ages: and I beseech you to consider what an infinite confusion that will be at the day of judgment, when they, to whom you have preached righteousness, shall enter into everlasting glory, and you who have preached it shall have the curse of Hananeel, and the reward of Balaam, "The wages of unrighteousness." But thus it was, when the wise men asked the doctors where Christ should be born, they told them right; but the wise men went to Christ, and found him, and the doctors sat still, and went not.

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Fourthly; Consider, that every sin which is committed by a minister of religion, is more than one, and it is as soon espied too; for more men look upon the sun in an eclipse, than when he is in his beauty but every spot, I say, is greater, every mote is a beam; it is not only made so, but it is so; it hath not the excuses of the people, is not pitiable by the measures of their infirmity: and, therefore, 1. It is reckoned in the accounts of malice, never of ignorance for ignorance itself, in them, is always a double sin; and, therefore, it is very remarkable, that when God gave command to the Levitical * Vide Origen. Homil. ii. in Levit.

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priests to make atonement for the sins of ignorance in the people, there is no mention made of the priests' sin of ignorance; God supposed no such thing in them, and Moses did not mention it, and there was no provision made in that case, as you may see at large in Levit. iv. and Numb. xv. But 2. Because every priest is a man also, observe how his sin is described, Levit. iv. 3. "If the priest that is anointed do sin according to the sin of the people;" that is, if he be so degenerate, and descend from the glory where God hath placed him, and do sin after the manner of the people, then he is to proceed to remedy: intimating that it is infinitely besides expectation; it is a strange thing, it is like a monstrous production; it is unnatural that a priest should sin, according as the people do; however, if he does, it is not connived at with a sentence gentle, as that finds which is a sin of ignorance, or the sin of the people: no, it is not; for it is always malice, it is always uncharitableness; for it brings mischief to their congregations, and contracts their blessings into little circuits, and turns their bread into a stone, and their wine to vinegar and then besides this, 3. It is also scandalous, and then it is infinitely against charity; such ministers make the people of God to sin, and that is against the nature of their office, and design of their persons: God sent them to bring the people from sin, and not to be like so many Jeroboams, the sons of Nebat, to set forward the devil's kingdom, to make the people to transgress the covenant of their God: for they who live more by example than by precept, will more easily follow the works of their minister than the words of God; and few men will aspire to be more righteous than their guide; they think it well if they be as he is: and hence it is no wonder that we see iniquity so popular. Oppida tota canem venerantur, nemo Dianam;" y every man runs after his lusts, and after his money, because they see too many of the clergy little looking after the ways of godliness. But then consider, let all such persons consider,

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5. That the accounts, which an ungodly and an irreligious minister of religion shall make, must needs be intolerable; when, besides the damnation which shall certainly be inflicted upon them for the sins of their own lives, they shall also reckon for all the dishonours they do to God, and to religion, and for all the sins of the people, which they did not, in all just ways, endeavour to hinder, and all the sins which their flocks have committed by their evil example and undisciplined lives.

6. I have but two words more to say in this affair: 1. Every minister that lives an evil life, is that person whom our blessed Saviour means under the odious appellative of a "hireling:" for he is not the hireling that receives wages, or that lives of the altar; "sine farinâ non est lex," said the doctors of the Jews; "without bread-corn no man can preach the law :" and St. Paul, though he spared the Corinthians, yet he took wages of other churches, of all, but in the regions of Achaia; and the law of nature and the law of the gospel have taken care, that "he that serves at the altar should live of the

y Juvenal.

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altar;" and he is no hireling for all that; but he is a hireling, that does not do his duty; he that "flies when the wolf comes," says Christ, he that is not present with them in dangers, that helps them not to resist the devil, to master their temptations, to invite them on to piety, to gain souls to Christ; to him it may be said, as the apostle did of the Gnostics, evσébɛiá έot Topiμòs, “ Gain to them is godliness ;" and theology is but "artificium venale," a trade of life, to fill the belly, and keep the body warm. "An cuiquam licere putas, quod cuivis non licet ?"" Is any thing lawful for thee, that is not lawful for every man ?" and if thou dost not mind, in thy own case, whether it be lawful or no, then thou dost but sell sermons, and give counsel at a price, and like a fly in the temple, taste of every sacrifice, but do nothing but trouble the religious rites: for certain it is, no man takes on him this office, but he "either seeks those things which are his own, or those things which are Jesus Christ's;" and if he does this," he is a minister of Jesus Christ;" if he does the other, he is “the hireling," and intends nothing but his belly, and "God shall destroy both it and him."

7. Lastly; These things I have said unto you, that ye sin not; but this is not the great thing here intended; you may be innocent, and yet not "zealous of good works;" but if you be not this, you are not good ministers of Jesus Christ: but, that this is infinitely your duty, and indispensably incumbent on you all, besides the express words of my text, and all the precepts of Christ and his apostles, we have the concurrent sense of the whole church, the laws and expectations of all the world, requiring of the clergy a great and an exemplar sanctity: for, therefore it is, that, upon this necessity is founded the doctrine of all divines in their discourses of the states and orders of religion; of which you may largely inform yourselves in Gerson's Treatise "De perfectione Religionis," in Aquinas, and in all his scholars upon that question; the sum of which is this, that all those institutions of religions, which St. Anselm calls "factitias religiones," that is, the schools of discipline in which men, forsaking the world, give themselves up wholly to a pious life, they are indeed very excellent if rightly performed; they are "status perfectionis acquirendæ," they are excellent institutions "for the acquiring perfection;" but the state of the superior clergy is "status perfectionis exercendæ," they are states which suppose perfection to be already in great measures acquired, and then to be exercised, not only in their own lives, but in the whole economy of their office : and, therefore, as none are to be chosen but those who have given themselves up to the strictness of a holy life, so far as can be known; so none do their duty, so much as tolerably, but those who, by an exemplar sanctity, become patterns to their flocks of all good works. Herod's doves could never have invited so many strangers to their dovecotes, if they had not been besmeared with opobalsamum: but ἐὰν μύρῳ χρίσῃς τὰς περιστερᾶς, καὶ ἔξωθεν ἄλλας ἄξουσιν, said Didymus; "Make Geoponic. lib. 14.

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your pigeons smell sweet, and they will allure whole flocks;" and if your life be excellent, if your virtues be like a precious ointment, you will soon invite your charges to run" in odorem unguentorum," "after your precious odours:" but you must be excellent, not tanquam unus de populo," "but tanquam homo Dei ;" you must be a man of God, not after the common manner of men, but" after God's own heart ;" and men will strive to be like you, if you be like to God: but when you only stand at the door of virtue, for nothing but to keep sin out, you will draw into the folds of Christ none but such as fear drives in. "Ad majorem Dei gloriam," "To do what will most glorify God," that is the line you must walk by: for to do no more than all men needs must, is servility, not so much as the affection of sons; much less can you be fathers to the people, when you go not so far as the sons of God: for a dark lantern, though there be a weak brightness on one side, will scarce enlighten one, much less will it conduct a multitude, or allure many followers, by the brightness of its flame. And indeed, the duty appears in this, that many things are lawful for the people, which are scandalous in the clergy; you are tied to more abstinences, to more severities, to more renunciations and self-denials, you may not with that freedom receive secular contentments that others may; you must spend more time in prayers, your alms must be more bountiful, your hands more open, your hearts enlarged; others must relieve the poor, you must take care of them; others must show themselves their brethren, but you must be their fathers; they must pray frequently and fervently, but you must give your "selves up wholly to the word of God and prayer;" they must "watch and pray, that they fall not into temptation," but you must watch for yourselves and others too; the people must mourn when they sin, but you must mourn for your own infirmities, and for the sins of others; and indeed, if the life of a clergyman does not exceed even the piety of the people, that life is, in some measure, scandalous: and what shame was ever greater than is described in the parable of the traveller going from Jerusalem to Jericho, when, to the eternal dishonour of the Levite and the priest, it is told that they went aside, and saw him with a wry neck and a bended head, but let him alone, and left him to be cured by the good Samaritan? The primitive church in her discipline used to thrust their delinquent clergy "in laicam communionem," even then when their faults were but small, and of less reproach than to deserve greater censures; yet they lessened them by thrusting them "into the lay communion," as most fit for such ministers, who refused to live at the height of sacerdotal piety. Remember your dignity, to which Christ hath called you: Shall such a man as I flee," said the brave Eleazar? shall the stars be darkness, shall the ambassadors of Christ neglect to do their King honour, shall the glory of Christ do dishonourable and inglorious actions ? “Ye are the glory of Christ,” saith St. Paul; remember that, -I can say no greater thing; unless possibly this

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may add some moments for your care and caution, | res, qui nec ipsi quicquam de suo arbitrio quod that "potentes potenter cruciabuntur," "great men shall be greatly tormented," if they sin; and to fall from a great height is an intolerable ruin. Severe were the words of our blessed Saviour, “Ye are the salt of the earth; if the salt have lost his savour, it is thenceforth good for nothing, neither for land, nor yet for the dunghill : a greater dishonour | could not be expressed; he that takes such a one up, will shake his fingers. I end with the saying of St. Austin, "Let your religious prudence think, that, in the world, especially at this time, nothing is more laborious, more difficult, or more dangerous, | than the office of a bishop, or a priest, or a deacon: 'Sed apud Deum nihil beatius, si eo modo militetur quo noster imperator jubet;' 'but nothing is more blessed, if we do our duty, according to the commandment of our Lord.""'z

I have already discoursed of the integrity of life, and what great necessity there is, and how deep obligations lie upon you, not only to be innocent and void of offence, but also to be holy; not only pure, but shining; not only to be blameless, but to be didactic in your lives; that as, by your sermons, you preach in season, so, by your lives, you may preach out of season; that is, at all seasons, and to all men, that they, “ seeing your good works, may glorify God" on your behalf, and on their own.

SERMON XI.

The second Sermon on Titus ii. 7.

Now by the order of the words, and my own undertaking, I am to tell you what are the rules and measures of your doctrine, which you are to teach the people.

1. Be sure that you teach nothing to the people but what is certainly to be found in Scripture: "Servemus eas mensuras, quas nobis per legislatorem lex spiritualis enunciat;" "The whole spiritual law given us by our law-giver, that must be our measures;" "a for though, by persuasion and by faith, by mis-persuasion and by error, by false commentaries and mistaken glosses, every man may be come a law unto himself, and unhappily bind upon his conscience burdens which Christ never imposed; yet you must bind nothing upon your charges, but what God hath bound upon you; you cannot become a law unto them; that is the only privilege of the lawgiver, who, because he was an interpreter of the Divine will, might become a law unto us; and because he was faithful in all the house, did tell us all his Father's will; and, therefore, nothing can be God's law to us, but what he hath taught us. But of this I shall need to say no more but the words of Tertullian; " Nobis nihil licet ex nostro arbitrio indulgere, sed nec eligere aliquid, quod de suo arbitrio aliquis induxerit: apostolos Domini habemus, autoEpist. 148.

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inducerent elegerunt, sed acceptam à Christo disciplinam fideliter nationibus assignarunt." Whatsoever is not in, and taken from, the Scriptures, is from a private spirit, and that is against Scripture certainly; "for no Scripture is," idiaç imidúoews, saith St. Peter; it is not, it cannot be “ of private interpretation;" that is, unless it come from the Spirit of God, which is that Spirit that moved upon the waters of the new creation, as well as of the old, and was promised to all," to you, and to your children, and to as many as the Lord our God shall call, and is bestowed on all, and is the earnest of all our inheritance, and is "given to every man to profit withal;" it cannot prove God to be the author, nor be a light to us to walk by, or to show others the way to heaven.

This rule were alone sufficient to guide us all in the whole economy of our calling, if we were not weak and wilful, ignorant and abused: but the Holy Scripture hath suffered so many interpretations, and various sounds and seemings, and we are so prepossessed and predetermined to misconstruction by false apostles without, and prevailing passions within, that though it be in itself sufficient, yet it is not so for us; and we may say with the eunuch, "How can I understand, unless some man should guide me?" And, indeed, in St. Paul's epistles, "there are many things hard to be understood;" and, in many other places, we find that the well is deep; and unless there be some to help us to draw out the latent senses of it, our souls will not be filled with the waters of salvation. Therefore, that I may do you what assistances I can, and, if I cannot in this small portion of time, instruct you, yet that I may counsel you, and remind you of the best assistances that are to be had; if I cannot give you rules sufficient to expound all hard places, yet that I may show how you shall sufficiently teach your people, by the rare rules and precepts, recorded in places that are, or may be made, easy, I shall first give you some advices in general, and then descend to more particular rules and measures.

1. Because it is not to be expected, that every minister of the word of God should have all the gifts of the Spirit, and every one to abound in tongues, and in doctrines, and in interpretations; you may, therefore, make great use of the labours of those worthy persons, whom God hath made to be lights in the several generations of the world, that a hand may help a hand, and a father may teach a brother, and we all be taught of God: for there are many who have, by great skill, and great experience, taught as many good rules for the interpretation of Scripture; amongst which those that I shall principally recommend to you, are the books of St. Austin, "De Utilitate Credendi" and his 3 lib. "De Doctrinâ Christianâ;" the "Synopsis" of Athanasius; the "Proems" of Isidore; the "Prologues" of St. Jerome. I might well add the "Scholia" of Ecumenius; the “ Catena" of the Greek fathers, and of later times, the ordinary and interlineary glosses; the excellent book of Hugo de S. Victore, "de a Origen. b Contra hæres,

eruditione didascalicâ;" "Ars interpretandi Scriptu- | and easily expressed commandments, and promises, ras," by Sixtus Senensis; Serarius's "Prolegomena;" and threatenings of the gospel, and the Psalms, and Tena's “Introduction to the Scriptures;" together the prophets. with Laurentius è Villa-Vincentio, Andreas Hyperius "de Ratione studii Philosophici," and the "Hypotyposes" of Martinus Cantapratensis: Arias Montanus's "Joseph," or "de Arcano Sermone," is of another nature, and more fit for preachers; and so is Sanctes Paguine's "Isagoge;" but Ambrosius Catharinus's book "duarum clavium ad sacram scripturam," is useful to many good purposes: but more particularly, and I think more usefully, are those seven rules of interpreting Scriptures, written by Tichonius, and first made famous by St. Austin's commendation of them, and inserted in tom. v. of the Biblioth. SS. pp.-Sebastian Perez wrote thirtyfive rules for the interpretation of Scripture: Franciscus Ruiz drew from the ancient fathers two hundred and thirty-four rules: besides those many learned persons who have written vocabularies, tropologies, and expositions of words and phrases; such as are Flacius Illyricus, Junius, Jerome Lauretus, and many others, not infrequent in all public libraries. But I remember, that he that gives advice to a sick man in Ireland to cure his sickness, must tell him of medicaments that are "facilè parabilia," 99 66 easy to be had," and cheap to be bought, or else his counsel will not profit him; and even of these God hath made good provision for us; for, although many precious things are reserved for them that dig deep, and search wisely, yet there are medicinal plants, and corn and grass, things fit for food and physic, to be had in every field.

And so it is in the interpretation of Scripture; there are ways of doing it well and wisely, without the too laborious methods of weary learning, that even the meanest labourers in God's vineyard may have that which is fit to minister to him that needs. Therefore,

2. In all the interpretations of Scripture, the literal sense is to be presumed and chosen, unless there be evident cause to the contrary. The reasons are plain; because the literal sense is natural, and it is first, and it is most agreeable to some things, | in their whole kind; not indeed to prophecies, nor to the teachings of the learned, nor those cryptic ways of institution by which the ancients did hide a light, and keep it in a dark lantern from the temeration of ruder handlings and popular preachers: but the literal sense is agreeable to laws, to the publication of commands, to the revelation of the Divine will, to the concerns of the vulgar, to | the foundations of faith, and to all the notice of things, in which the idiot is as much concerned as the greatest clerks. From which proposition these three corollaries will properly follow; 1. That God hath plainly and literally described all his will, both in belief and practice, in which our essential duty, the duty of all men, is concerned. 2. That, in plain expressions we are to look for our duty, and not in the more secret places and darker corners of the Scripture. 3. That you may regularly, certainly, and easily do your duty to the people, if you read and literally expound the plain sayings,

3. But then remember this also; that not only the grammatical or prime signification of the word is the literal sense; but whatsoever is the prime intention of the speaker, that is the literal sense; though the word be to be taken metaphorically, or by translation signify more things than one. "The eyes of the Lord are over the righteous;" this is literally true; and yet it is as true, that God hath no eyes properly; but by "eyes" are meant, God's "providence ;" and though this be not the first literal sense of the word "eyes," it is not that which was at first imposed and contingently; but it is that signification, which was secondarily imposed, and by reason and proportion. Thus, when we say, "God cares for the righteous," it will not suppose that God can have any anxiety or afflictive thoughts; but "he cares" does as truly and properly signify provision, as caution; beneficence, as fear; and therefore the literal sense of it is, that "God provides good things for the righteous." For in this case the rule of Abulensis is very true; "Sensus literalis semper est verus," "the literal sense is always true;" that is, all that is true, which the Spirit of God intended to signify by the words, whether he intended the first or second signification; whether that of voluntary and contingent, or that of analogical and rational institution. "Other sheep have I," said Christ, "which are not of this fold:" that he did not mean this of the "pecus lanigerum" is notorious; but of the gentiles to be gathered into the privileges and fold of Israel: for in many cases, the first literal sense is the hardest, and sometimes impossible, and sometimes inconvenient: and when it is any of these, although we are not to recede from the literal sense; yet we are to take the second signification, the tropological or figurative. "If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out," said Christ: and yet no man digs his eyes out; because the very letter or intention of this command bids us only to throw away that, which if we keep, we cannot avoid sin : for sometimes the letter tells the intention, and sometimes the intention declares the letter; and that is properly the literal sense, which is the first meaning of the command in the whole complexion: and in this, common sense and a vulgar reason will be a sufficient guide, because there is always some other thing spoken by God, or some principle naturally implanted in us, by which we are secured in the understanding of the Divine command. "He that does not hate father and mother for my sake, is not worthy of me:" the literal sense of "hating" used in Scripture is not always "malice," but sometimes a "less loving;" and so Christ also hath expounded it: "He that loves father or mother more than me, is not worthy of me.”—But I shall not insist longer on this; he that understands nothing but his grammar, and hath not conversed with men and books, and can see no farther than his fingers' ends, and makes no use of his reason, but for ever will be a child; he may be deceived

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