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"Baptism, 1 Septem., 1648. Sir Alexander Dalmahoy, FIER, of that ilk, Dame Marie Nisbet-a daughter named Agnes. With Sir Luis Stuart of Kirkhill; Sir John Dalmahoy of that ilk."

Here we have, in the same document, two persons described as Dalmahoy of that ilk; but the addition of the word fer in the case of the firstnamed, makes the matter perfectly clear. In the same way William de Carmichael might be most properly described as of that ilk, and as Dominus ejusdem during the lifetime of his father Sir John.

He conveys

In the feudal system you can have no testamentary destination of lands. Every conveyance must be inter vivos. The mode in which an arrangement to take place after the death of the present proprietor is effected, is as follows:his estate simpliciter to his intended successor, but adds a clause reserving his own life-rent and the power of alteration. Under these circumstances, both the grantor and the grantee would be properly described as of that ilk.

Nothing could be more probable than that Sir John de Carmichael, when on the point of going abroad on a dangerous service, should have made a settlement of his estate in the manner described; and I may add that, looking to the personal services which were due to the crown by its vassals in the fifteenth century, permission to serve abroad could only be obtained by an arrangement providing an efficient representative of the baron to call out and command the contribution to the national army which the barony was bound to furnish. And what better representative could Sir John de Carmichael have than his eldest son? who would as a matter of course, in all deeds with which his father had no connection, be thereafter simply described as Dominus ejusdem.

As to the claim of the Bishop of Orleans to be the hero of Baugé, J. R. C. has not answered my questions:

1. If he was in holy orders at the time? in which case he could not have used a lance.

2. In what manner is he to be dovetailed into the pedigree of the Carmichaels of that ilk?

3. How in those days, when heraldry was a science guided by the most stringent rules, and before arms could be found and engraved for a very moderate honorarium, he could transmit the broken spear and the fesse tortilé to that family?

In regard to the Carmichaels of Meadowflat, it is true that, in the History of the Upper Ward of Lanarkshire (vol. i. p. 470), I state that John, the third son of Sir John Carmichael of that ilk, obtained a charter of these lands in 1511. J. R. C., however, omits to state that I give as my authority the Register Mag., Sig. LXVIII. 169; and that, in the immediately preceding sentence, I mention that this only occurred on the failure of an earlier family of the same name, to members of which all his extracts refer. GEORGE VERE IRVING.

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"MANUSCRIT VENU DE ST HÉLÈNE" (3rd S. xi. 520.)-In reply to LORD LYTTELTON'S query, I beg to transcribe the following, which appeared Oct. 31, 1864: in the French "N. & Q.," L'Intermédiaire,

"Les Confessions de Napoléon Ier.-Je vois annoncé comme sorti de presse le mois dernier l'ouvrage suivant : Les Confessions de l'Empereur Napoléon, petit mémorial écrit de sa main à Sainte-Hélène, parvenu en Angleterre, traduit et publié chez John Murray, à Londres (1818). Traduit sur le texte anglais, l'original ayant disparu, et augmenté de notes par Halbert d'Angers, suivies d'une notice historique sur le Duc de Reichstadt, 1864. In-18 de 166 pages. Metz, imprim. Jangel et Didion. Qu'est-ce que ce livre? L'énoncé du titre dit-il vrai? Serait-ce qui fit tant de bruit et qui mystifia si bien tout le monde, par hasard le fameux Manuscrit venu de Sainte-Hélène, le même libraire Murray? S'il en est ainsi, je rappely compris le Duc de Wellington, lorsqu'il fut publié par lerais que Napoléon fut obligé de désavouer cet habile postiche afin de détromper l'Europe, et qu'il n'y a guère plus de vingt ans que l'on en a découvert l'auteur.

"Le Genevois Lullin de Châteauvieux, l'ami de Made 1816, avait amusé sa solitude de ce jeu d'imagination, dame de Staël, se trouvant à la campagne dans l'automne puis avait jeté le paquet à la poste à l'adresse de Murray, sans indiquer qui faisait cet envoi, et sans se douter probablement du succès que sa ruse devait avoir. Il était parvenu à garder son secret, qui aurait pu périr avec lui, comme celui de Junius, si en 1841, ses enfants ayant été mis sur la trace par une circonstance fortuite, il n'avait lui-même révélé l'aventure et ouvert le tiroir où dormait

depuis un quart de siècle le brouillon de son ouvrage.” P. A. L.

PALEOLOGUS (3rd S. xii. 30.)—I examined the tablet in Landulph church several years ago. The impression on my recollection is that it is coeval with the date inscribed. I took a rubbing at the time, and if RHODOCANAKIS will favour me with a direct communication, I will let him see it. H. T. ELLACOMBE.

Rectory, Clyst St. George, Devon.

RHODOCANAKIS, I am glad to find, sustains what I have for many years considered a just scepticism.

The burial register of St. Michael, Barbados, is a copy of an older original, and therefore it is extremely doubtful whether the latter contained the double row of asterisks which follow the entry of "Palæologus," as it now appears.

There were many Greek merchants at the time in Barbados; besides which, I fancy that "Palæologus" is no more exclusively "royal" than Stewart, Stuart, Tudor, &c.

The whole story from beginning to end, including the reputed "sojourn" in Ferrara, seems to me to be a modern invention not later than the time of Ligon, whose History of Barbados Schomburgk quotes, and who is, so far as I am aware, the first quasi authority on the subject.


“OLYMPIA MORATA" (3rd S. xi. 465.) — Likewise consult M. Jules Bonnet's very interesting

little volume: "Olympia Morata: Episode de la Renaissance en Italie. Chez Grassart, Paris."

I possess a volume of this celebrated woman's works, together with her husband Coelius S. Curio's letters, printed at Basle MDLXX, with a dedication by the latter, of 1562, to Queen Elizabeth. On the back of the red morocco binding is repeated five times a crowned heart, surrounded by rays, and fleur-de-lys at the four corners. Could I be informed whom the book originally belonged to?

P. A. L.

BOURBON SPRIG (3rd S. xi. 299, 461; xii. 38.)As the subject has been introduced into "N. & Q.," it may interest some readers to pursue it in the same; on which account I prefer answering in these pages, to sending MR. PINKERTON a private communication, which otherwise I should have had much pleasure in doing. I am glad to have elicited the valuable information which he has given of the French name of this pattern, and place of its manufacture. As I observed before, I possess the identical coffee-cup and saucer which the Abbé Deterville brought over at the first revolution; and also the greater part of the set which he had manufactured for him in Staffordshire in imitation of it. The flower is not so well designed as on the French set: the handles of the cups are less graceful, and the saucers rounded in the common shape; while the French saucer rather turns in, and is more elegant.

In answer to the inquiry about the marks, my French coffee-cup has no mark at all, but the saucer has underneath it an oval, surmounted by a ducal coronet; and in the oval is a cypher, which I have now made out: it contains the letters G. and A.,-all is marked in red. In my English set, every piece is marked underneath; but with a W between two curved and crossed lines, like Hogarth's line of beauty, all in blue colour. F. C. H. HIGHLAND PISTOLS (3rd S. xi. 519.)-In answer to the query put by MR. DAVIES, I may state that the Thomas Caddell to whom he refers was a famous pistol-maker at Doune, Perthshire, Scotland. Which Thomas Caddell, however, is the Thomas after whom MR. DAVIES inquires, will be a difficult matter to settle, seeing that there were three generations of pistol-makers-father, son, and grandson, all of whose names were Thomas. The Caddell family came from Muthill in Strathearn, and settled at Doune, in 1647. The head of the family was a blacksmith, but he subsequently became a pistol-maker, and reached such a proficiency in the art as to make the Doune pistols famous throughout Scotland. The trade was carried on by successive generations of the family till near the close of the last century. The suppression of the rebellion in 1746, and the subsequent disarmament of the Highlands, was a great

blow to it; in fact, brought about its extinction. Some of Caddell's pistols were richly ornamented with silver, gold and jewels, and have been known to sell as high as sixty guineas a pair. The last representative of the Caddell family (Doune branch) was drowned near Stirling in 1800. There is in existence an —

"Inventory of writs of certain subjects in and about. Doune, which formerly belonged to Thomas Caddell, senior, gunsmith, there; afterwards to Thomas Caddell, gunsmith, there; his son, Thomas Caddell, gunsmith; his grandson, and Thomas Caddell, manager of the Cotton

Mill at Corsley, his great grandson, and which were James Smith, manager of the Deanston Works, on a trust afterwards acquired by adjudication at the instance of bond granted by Robert Caddell, slater, in Stirling, cousin german and heir of the said Thomas Caddell at Corsley," &c.

Pistol-making is now a lost art in Doune. A John Campbell tried to carry it on after the Caddells had retired; but the trade gradually declined, and finally became extinct in the hands of a John Murdoch. About twenty years after Murdoch's death a John Paterson attempted to revive the trade; but although he turned out a good article, there was no demand, and with Paterson, pistol-making in Doune became a lost art. As to the "F. H." after whom MR. DAVIES inquires, we have nothing but conjecture to fall back upon. The owner may have been one of the Hays of Errol, among whom Francis was a favourite name, and is at present borne by the Hon. Francis, who was born in 1864. Or they may have belonged to one of the Hamiltons, who were created Earls of Haddington in 1619. Or they may have been the property of one of the Homes, or possibly again of the Hays of Tweed ale, one of whom at present bears the name of Frederick. All this, however, is mere conjecture, and must be taken quantum valeat. ANON. ROBERT BROWNING'S "BOY AND ANGEL": "Kynge RoberD OF CYSILLE" (3rd S. xii. 6.)— According to Warton (ii. 22.), "Sir Gowther" is only another version of "Robert the Devil," and therefore of "Kynge Robert of Cysille." If there be verbal similarities between the two mentioned by MR. ADDIS, they are as nothing compared with the close following of the old poem in the modern version of "King Robert of Sicily" in Longfellow's Tales of a Wayside Inn-so close as almost to call for some acknowledgment of the source whence the modern "King Robert" is taken. LYDIARD. THE WORD "DOLE" (3rd S. xii. 7.)- The following is an instance of the use of the word dole by a living author:


"Her father laid the letter in her hand,
And closed the hand upon it, and she died.
So that day there was dole in Astolat."
Tennyson's Elaine.

CHEVERS FAMILY (3rd S. x. 403, 462.)-It has not, I believe, been shown clearly who immediately succeeded Edward Chevers, who was created Viscount Mount Leinster by James II. Upon this point our leading authorities appear to me obscure and contradictory. According to Burke (Extinct, Dormant, and Abeyant Peerages, 3rd ed.), Lord Mount Leinster had an only brother, Jerome, succeeded by his sons Christopher and Francis, of whom there are now no male descendants. This statement is confirmed in "N. & Q." 3rd S. x. 462, by MR. JOHN D'ALTON. We are, however, told elsewhere by this authority (King James's Irish Army List, vol. ii. p. 788), that


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"After much litigation, Andrew and John Chevers, the brother and heir" [sic]" of Viscount Mount Leinster, succeeded in preserving a portion of the estates allotted to the family in Galway; and the male line of Andrew becoming extinct on the death of his son Hyacinth, John Chevers became the representative of the house of Killyan."

It appears difficult to reconcile these two sets of statements. Had Lord Mount Leinster more than one brother? If so, what were their names? CALCUTTENSIS.

JOHANNES SCOTUS ERIGENA (3rd S. xii. 7.)-A complete edition of the works of this great man was published by the Abbé Migne at Paris in 1853. The price is about eight or ten francs. There is a copy of it in the London Library, 12, St. James's Square. K. P. D. E.



DRYDEN QUERIES: "NEYES" (3rd S. xii. 7.) I have not Dryden's plays to refer to, but probably neyes means eyes. There is an undoubted instance of this in a quotation given in Jesse's History of the British Dog, vol. ii., where, at a bear-baiting, the bear is described "with his two pinke neyes. Is not this, by the way, the etymology of the name Pinckeney? It is an instance of the "epenthetic n," so common in old English. In my new edition of Piers Plowman, the first volume of which is just ready, the various readings furnish several instances. Thus, in the prologue, 1. 42, instead of " at the ale," some MSS. have "at the nale" or "at nale ; and again, in Passus V. 1. 115, instead of "at the oke (oak)" most MSS. have" at the noke" 66 or atte noke." Hence the explanation of the phrase "for the nonce," which simply means "for the once" (A.-S. for than anes), but which so puzzled Tyrwhitt, one of our greatest scholars, that he was driven to conjecture a derivation from the Latin pro nunc. The history of this n seems to be simply this,-that the dative of the article takes the form than in the masculine and neuter in early English, and the accusative masculine takes the forms then, than, thane, thene. But when the noun following began with a vowel, this n was

"" #

Hence, John a Noakes, or John Nokes.

transferred to the beginning of such word, and this transfer took place not only in the dative and accusative cases, but often in all cases for the mere sake of euphony, so that we not only find "the neyes" in the oblique cases, but even in the nominative case. Nor did this addition of n stop here; we may go a step further, and dismiss the article altogether, and speak of "two pinke neyes." To add to the confusion thus introduced, we have numerous instances of the reverse process, the taking away of an n, so that instead of a nadder, we now absurdly write an adder. See Ulphilas's translation of Luke iii. 7-" kuni nadre,” i. e. O kin of nadders, O generation of vipers. Other instances are, an auger, an umpire, miswritten for (O. Fr. noumpere). a nauger (a gnawing or biting tool), and a numpire WALTER W. SKEAT. Cambridge.

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Brand, vol. iii. p. 72 (Bohn), gives a long extract from Grose: a small portion of which I will cite, referring E. L. to that article for the rest:

"A ghost may be laid for any term less than a hundred years, and in any place or body, full or empty-as the solid oak; the pommel of a sword; a barrel of beer, if a yeoman or a simple gentleman; or a pipe of wine, if an esquire or a justice. But of all places, what a ghost least likes is the Red Sea; it being related in many instances that ghosts have most earnestly besought exorcists not to confine them in that place. It is nevertheless considered an undisputed fact that great numbers are laid there, hand, though neither history nor tradition give any perhaps from its being a safer place than any nearer at account of an escape thence before their time."

I think we may perceive a mixture here of the classic fable of the wandering ghosts of unburied men; and the miracle of the casting out of the devils, and their request to our Lord in the Gospel J. A. G.


Carisbrooke. In the form of exorcising persons possessed by the devil, prescribed in the Roman Ritual, the evil spirit is thus adjured by the exorcist:


"Cede ergo Deo +, qui te et malitiam tuam in Pharaone, et in exercitu ejus per Moysen servum suum in abyssum demersit."

This probably was the origin of laying a ghost in the Red Sea. In an amusing poem, entitled "The Ghost of a boiled Scrag of Mutton," which appeared in the Flowers of Literature about sixty years ago, there was the following verse embodying the idea:

"The scholar was versed in all magical lore,

Most famous was he throughout college;
To the Red Sea full many an unquiet ghost,
To repose with king Pharaoh and his mighty host,
He had sent through his powerful knowledge."
F. C. H.
Captain Grose, in his Provincial Glossary,

"Of all places the most common, and what a ghost least likes, is the Red Sea: it being related, in many instances, that ghosts have most earnestly besought the exorcists not to confine them in that place. It is nevertheless considered as an indisputable fact that there are an infinite number laid there, perhaps from its being a safer prison than any other near at hand."

Although this passage does not answer the question, it may be of use to your correspondent

E. L.

R. F. W. S.


JOHNNY PEEP (3rd S. xii. 5.)-In reply to the query of H. K., I beg to state that I assigned the story to Drummond of Hawthornden on the authority of Ruddiman, the poet's biographer, as quoted in Chambers's Lives of Illustrious Scotsmen. I was quite aware that the anecdote had been popularly connected with Burns, and that it was also asENGRAVED OUTLINES: No. VIII. (3rd S. viii. signed to some other poets. Whether the story 29.)is correctly attributed to Drummond I cannot say, "Suenan chirimias, y sale escuchando el Arzobispo DON but most certainly it has been erroneously given BERNARDO, y en acabando de tocar, cantan dentro. to Burns, unless we are disposed to accuse the "Music. En el pozo está el tesoro great Scottish bard of plagiarism, of which he was certainly incapable. It is, I find, extremely difficult to obtain the original version of a story. The anecdote about Burns and the Cumberland yeomen I feel satisfied had no foundation whatever. CHARLES ROGERS, LL.D. 2, Heath Terrace, Lewisham, S.E.

Mas rico que la plata, y mas que el oro,
Bebed, bebed, que nativa

Está la mina en él del agua viva.
Calderon, La Virgen del Sagrario, Jorn. iii.
t. i. p. 420, ed. Keil, Leipsique, 1827.

The stage-direction and the verses correspond so nearly, that I think there can be no doubt that the outline is intended to illustrate the above. La Virgen del Sagrario is not one of Calderon's prominent dramas, and I am not aware that it has been translated into English. Further inquiry is desirable.

The engraving No. vii. does not suit any passage in La Virgen. H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

BISHOP BUTLER'S BEST BOOK (3rd S. xii. 23.)— The passage referred to, but somewhat inaccurately, by Mr. Froude, occurs in the preface to Bishop Butler's Sermons:

"For the sake of this whole class of readers, for they are of different capacities, different kinds, and get into this way from different occasions, I have often wished that it had been the custom to lay before people nothing in matters of argument but premises, and leave them to draw conclusions themselves; which, though it could not be done in all cases, might in many." S. L.

FAMILY OF DE TONI: ARMS (3rd S. vii. 497.)It is incidentally stated in the discussion on "Albini Brito: the Heraldic Puzzle" that the De Tonies, descended from Ralph de Toni, standard

bearer to William the Conqueror, bore eagles for
their arms. I shall be very much obliged for an
authority for this statement, as it appears from a
Roll of Arms of the reign of Edward I. in the
possession of the Society of Antiquaries, and pub-
lished in The Archæologia (vol. xxxix. pp. 402-421)
that the arms of Rauf Thorney were argent a
maunch gules. I notice (p. 420) that to Lucas
Thani are assigned-azure, three bars argent; and
to Richard Thani-argent, six eagles displayed,
sable. I conceive that the last-mentioned persons
were of a different family, and that the descend-
ants of the Conqueror's standard-bearer bore the
arms first blazoned. Any definite information
upon this point will be esteemed a favour.

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"Zooks! I must woo the Muse to-day,

Though line before I'd never wrote. 'On what occasion?' do you say?

Our Dick has got a long-tail'd coat!"

"My Cousin Nicholas" was begun in Blackwood, No. ccxx., April, 1834, vol. xxxiv. It is possible the title have been altered to "Nick's Longmay tailed Coat," but still I should be glad of any information as to why it is omitted from the Ingoldsby Legends, amongst which it seems to deserve a place quite as much as "Misadventures at Margate," or "Nursery Reminiscences," &c. &c. R. C. S. W. WALSH OF CASTLE HOEL (3rd S. xii. 14.) Apart from the question of family, I should be glad if PINGATORIS would favour me with the details of his reference (Harl. MS. No. 1143), as I am unable to consult it. May I ask at what

period, and by whom, the arms mentioned were assigned to Kadwalader ap Gronwy, for this reason, that heraldic ordinaries, I am inclined to believe, were of Norman introduction, and are, so far as I am aware, never found in the arms of ancient Keltic (?) families? I lately heard some very suggestive remarks, by an Irish scholar, on the question of the latter arms, but should scarcely be warranted in bringing them forward in aid of my hypothesis. The prototype of the arms of Walsh of Castle Hoel, according to my suggestion, are amongst the most ancient in the kingdom (as will be seen by a reference to a copy of Dugdale's Warwickshire, in the British Museum), and therefore there is no disparagement of Walsh.


BUTTERFLY (3rd S. xi. 342, 449, 506.)-Perhaps it is worth while to add to the quotations already given, the following one from one of the "old masters" of the English language: —

"And so befel that as he cast his eye
Among the wortes on a boterflye,
He was war of this fox that lay ful lowe."
Chaucer: Nonne Prestes Tale, 1. 453.

Cambridge. TOMB AT BARBADOS (3rd S. xii. 9.)—There was a full account of this tomb, or rather vault, of the Chase family, with a drawing of the position of the displaced coffins, in The Spiritualist Magazine about three years ago, and another by myself in No. 335 of the Dublin University Magazine (1860). The builder and first owner of the vault was a Mr. Elliott. After a lapse of many years, there being no representative in the island of the Elliott family, Colonel Thomas Chase took possession of the vault, and then commenced the phenomena in question.

A. C. M. will find this mystery related and discussed in Once a Week, 1st series, vol. xii. pp. 319, 476, 560. At p. 476 it is suggested that an influx of water might cause the disturbance of the coffins. JOHN ADDIS, JUN.

TWO-FACED PICTURES (3rd S. xi. 257, 423, 510.) There have been signs constructed on this principle in this city, except that three faces were presented. A person coming up the street would see the likeness of one person, and when directly opposite of another, whilst one coming down the street would see a third likeness. A brewer's firm, consisting of three persons, had their names placed upon their sign in this way. UNEDA. Philadelphia.

I have just found what is perhaps the oldest recorded instance of a two-faced picture in a note on the absurd apeing of Alexander by Caracalla, in Gibbon's Decline and Fall, Oxford ed. 1827, chap. vi. p. 165. Caricatures had been seen by Herodian (lib. iv. p. 154), " in which a figure was

drawn with one side of the face like Alexander, and the other like Caracalla." ARCHIMEDES.

PLAYS AT ETON (3rd S. xi. 376, 467.) — Having looked in vain for an answer to the question of R. I. respecting plays at Eton, I beg to tell him all I recollect on the matter, which, however, is but little. I left at election 1831, and early in that year, or late in 1830, a play was acted in We rehearsed for The Rivals; I Long Chamber. say "we," for I was at first a member of the corps dramatique, but was soon found to be so hopelessly bad, that the manager was compelled to reject my services, and I resigned at once and for ever all pretensions to histrionic fame. If my recollection does not fail me, after several rehearsals this play was given up, because "Bob Acres " was not satisfied with his performance of that part. What other play was substituted I am not quite sure, but I am confident it was not an original piece, written or adapted for the occasion. I think I heard afterwards that "Keate" expressed his disapprobation of the theatrical attempt in such a manner as prevented any recurrence of the Long Chamber stage. C. Y. CRAWLEY.

OLD SEALS ON CHARTERS, ETC. (3rd S. xii. 25.) Bees' wax was used for the more ancient seals. What is now used is lac. (See Kitto, Matt. xxvii. 66; also "N. & Q." 3rd S. xi. 527.) The method of the Arabs at the present day is of great antiquity. "The seal-ring is used for signing letters and other writings; and its impression is considered more valid than a sign manual." (Gen. xli. 42, Job ix. 7.) The modern Egyptians "dab a little ink upon it with one of the fingers, and it is having first touched his tongue with another pressed upon the paper, the person who uses it finger, and moistened the place on the paper which is to be stamped." (Lane's Mod. Egyp., L. E. K., i. 44.) The necessity of sealing arose from the universal ignorance of writing.


"MORNING'S PRIDE" (3rd S. xii. 36.)—If MR. HOSKYNS-ABRAHALL will look again at his Christian Year he will see it is almost inevitable that Mr. Keble referred to the rainbow, mentioned in verse 2, as the context to the word pride in verse 3, which runs on without any break in the language; thus we have "from thee," i. e. from the rainbow, "the swain takes timely warning,"

&c. Shower and rainbow, rainbow and showers frequently alternate with great rapidity. I remember to have counted three different rainbows in one mountain ramble of about ninety minutes, in Westmoreland; but in my former remarks I referred more particularly to the counties of Middlesex, Bucks, and Berks. It appears that "Morning's Pride" is called a shower by some, a mist by others; do we not all mean the same? A mist

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