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to its settlement; but such is not the case. "There seem to have been four editions," he says, "the second and third undated." Undated, yes; but merely because the binder's knife has shorn away the lower part of the imprint of the only two copies of these editions that are known to be extant. There is no direct reason for supposing that they were dateless at their publication. In his description of the Bodleian copy of the first edition he appears to have been guided by Bohn's Lowndes, for he adopts (as I did myself, in the first instance, from want of evidence) one of the blunders of that authority.

The copy in question is not Milner's copy, which is thus described in his sale catalogue:-"Denny's Secrets of Angling, a Poem, augmented with many approved Experiments by Lawson, frontispiece, date cut off." This was evidently, therefore, a mutilated copy of the edition of 1652, in which alone the woodcut figures as a frontispiece. The Bodleian copy, on the other hand, is complete; has no mention of Lawson on the title-page (he comes in with the second edition), and bears the imprint of 1613. It must have found its way into the library at an earlier date, for two compilers of angling-book lists, Mr. White, of Crickhowell (in 1806-7), and Mr. Appleby (in 1820), refer to it. The former states that it was entered under the name of John Davies, of Kidwelly. T. WESTWOOD.

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pamphlet, when it occurred to me that, after all, the tract intended, and so unhesitatingly ascribed to Junius, might only be a copy of a very common one, namely, the 1774 edition of the Irenarch of Dr. Ralph Heathcote, the author of Sylva. It corresponds exactly in title, size, date, and character with the one mentioned by Mr. Parkes, and it is most improbable that there should be two perfectly distinct tracts with every circumstance of resemblance. In Dr. Heathcote's short Autobiography (Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, 1812, 8vo, vol. iii. p. 539), he observes:

"In 1771 I published The Irenarch, a Justice of Peace's Manual. In 1774 was published the second edition of the Irenarch with a large dedication to Lord Mansfield. This dedication contains much miscellaneous matter relating written with a view to oppose and check that outrageous, to laws, policy, and manners, and was at the same time

indiscriminate, and boundless invective which had been

repeatedly levelled at this illustrious person. But the public was disposed, perversely as I imagined, to misunderstand me. They conceived that, instead of defending, I meant to insult and abuse Lord Mansfield, and this, as should seem, because writing under a feigned character, I did by way of enlivening my piece, treat the noble Lord with a certain familiarity and gaiety of spirit. Upon this, in 1781, I published a third edition of the Irenarch, setting my name at full length, and frankly avowing my real purpose."

Sir P. Francis's copy may be without the titlepage. Mr. H. Merivale will probably have seen it, and if so, can say whether my conjecture is correct, and whether the two Irenarchs are not identical.

I have been forcibly reminded, in carefully going over Sir Philip's Memoirs, which I have read with great interest, of a conversation I had with my late friend Joseph Parkes some time before his death, on the theory he so perseveringly espoused. He explained to me the variety of proof which he was bringing to bear, in his forthcoming work, in support of Sir Philip's claim, whic he considered would for ever settle the subject by a process amounting to a moral demonstration. I in reply quoted Bishop Warbur


"Of all visionary projects, the pretending to settle a point, to end the disputes about it, is the most foolish. One half of your readers, from stupidity, cannot see it, and the other half, from malice, will not acknowledge it. So the old Mumpsimus still goes on."

I hoped, I told him, that his Demonstration, like many others that I could name, would not create more fresh doubts than it would afford solution of old ones, and that, as regarded myself in particular, it would not, what, however, it actually has done, convert a mere sceptic into a thorough and settled unbeliever.



I am aware that rock inscriptions are found in various parts of Italy, and among them I may mention Corneto and Castel d'Asso, and also Ferentino, where there is a very interesting inscription on the natural rock called by the peasantry "La Fata," ," "the Fairy," recording the munificence of Aulus Quinctilius Pal. Priscus to the inhabitants of Ferentinum. The inscription, however, of which I am going to speak has never, so far as I am aware, been noticed by any traveller.

I had spent the night pleasantly in the hospitable house of the priest of Licenza, the site of Horace's Sabine farm, and proceeded in the morning on foot with a guide along the slopes of Campanile, the ancient Lucretilis, to the Fontana Bella, which gushes, like many other springs of Italy, suddenly from the side of the hill. This was the fourth fountain which I had seen claiming to represent the celebrated Fons Bandusia of Horace (Carm. iii. 13); and if coolness and picturesqueness of scenery are to decide the question, I do not hesitate to give my vote to Fontana Bella. There are indeed no trees overhanging its waters, but it is in a position where they might very well be, and where they would afford an agreeable shade to the weary oxen and wandering flocks. Its coolness and freshness are such —

"ut nec

Frigidior Thracam nec purior ambiat Hebrus."

I had stated to my host that I intended to cross the summit of Lucretilis, and, proceeding along the slopes of the mountains, to make my way to Correse, the site of the ancient Cures, the birthplace of Numa Pompilius. Inquiring whether he could point out any interesting remains on my way, he drew my attention to a rock inscription called "Vena Scritta," "the engraved rock," as it is known among the peasantry. It is about four miles from Fontana Bella, and close to an old castle, La Sponga, which I found very picturesquely placed among the hills. Here, on the solid rock, I found an inscription like that which I had seen at Ferentinum, but the meaning is enigmatical. The rock was in its natural state, twelve feet in height, and ten in breadth. The letters are four inches in height, and at a distance of eight inches from each other. They are well formed, and most of them very distinct. The letters are the following:

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thus particular as to the position of the inscription, that future travellers who may have seen this note may have no difficulty in finding the spot. The marauders of Garibaldi must have passed it the other day in their approach to Tivoli. CRAUFURD TAIT RAMAGE


The following story, from the Historia Ludicra Rhodigini, may be interesting at the present time. He professes to take it from Sigonius de Regno Ital. 1. 2, ann. 661:—

"Omnium verò perfidorum perfidiam vicit Garibaldus Taurinatium Princeps. Is enim a Gundeberto, cum fratre Pertharito de Regno Longobardorum contendente, missus ad Grimoaldum Ducem Beneventanum petitum auxilium, suasit Beneventano ut regnum sibi ex opportuna fratrum discordia vindicaret. Hinc ad Gundebertum rediens, Beneventani sibi suppetias ferentis nuntiavit adventum; cauto tamen usurum consilio monet, si loricam sub veste

tegat, nondum expertæ fidei ne se inermis committat. sibi sagaciter caveat, nam ejus occidendi causa, GundeQuod ubi Gundibertus probavit, clam monet Grimoaldum,

bertum armatum ei occursurum. Itaque in amplexa mutuo sentiens Grimoaldus loricam subesse, quasi de insidiis jam certus, confestim Gundebertum gladio stricto confodit. Nec ita multo post a sicariis obtruncatus est Garibaldus, de cujus nomine Gran Ribaldo' hodie dicitur quisquis est insigniter sceleratus." [Balthass. Bonif. Rhodigini Hist. Ludic. lib. viii. ch. xx. De Principum Perjuriis, p. 243, ed. Bruxellæ, Mommart. A.D. 1656, 4to.]

"But the perfidy of all perfidious princes was outdone by GARIBALDI, PRINCE OF TURIN. This man was sent

by Gundebert, who was at that time disputing the kingdom of Lombardy with his brother Pertharit [some call him Pentharit], to ask assistance from Grimaldi, Duke of Benevento [or Friuli]. He persuaded the Beneventan to take advantage of this quarrel between the brothers, and ported the approach of the Duke of Benevento with supto seize the kingdom for himself. On his return, he replies; but advised Gundibert to take precautions for his own safety by wearing a shirt of mail beneath his vest, and not to trust himself unarmed to one whose good faith had not yet been proved. Gundebert approved of this advice; and GARIBALDI then secretly warns Grimaldi to provide carefully for his own safety, as Gundebert meant to come armed to the meeting for the purpose of assassinating him. And so when they met, and mutually embraced, Grimaldi feeling the mail-shirt beneath the dress, and being thus convinced of the intended treachery, instantly drew his sword and pierced Gundebert through. assassins, and from his name any remarkable villain is to But not long after GARIBALDI himself was slain by this day called Gran Ribaldo."""

There are, of course, many opponents of the Italian patriot who would cordially endorse the opinion of Rhodiginus, and who would not be slow to assert that the modern bearer of the name betrays his true descent from the perfidious prince of Turin; but setting aside all party-feeling and the fanciful derivation of the expression "Gran Ribaldo," does, or does not, Garibaldi really belong by descent to the family of the man mentioned in this history? E. A. D.

MINIATURE OF GEORGE III.—I had this year the good fortune to meet with a very nicelypainted enamel miniature of George III. when a very young man. It seems to have been an admirable likeness, if one may judge from the strong resemblance it bears to him in after-life, as well as to the portraits of his two sisters which were exhibited among the portraits at South Kensington this year. He is represented with his hair powdered, and dressed in three roll curls on each side, and wears a coat of crimson velvet enriched with gold embroidery, together with the star and ribbon of the Garter. On the back of the miniature, painted in the enamel, is the inscription:

Manini. Msc
F. G 2.

The date 1755 shows it to have been painted when he was eighteen years of age, and it is the earliest portrait of him which I remember to have seen. There is also an additional interest from the artist Gaetano Manini, Milanese. In Bryan's Dictionary he is stated to have been born about 1730; to have "painted history in the gaudy and frivolous style of the modern Italian school;" to have come to England a little before 1775, and to have died between 1780 and 1790. Edwards states that he was commonly called Cavaliere Manini; gives a similar description of his artistic qualities, and adds that he was an improvisatore. Neither, however, mention anything of his being a painter of portraits or miniatures, or an artist in enamel. As George III. was not in Italy in 1755, it seems clear that Manini was in England at an earlier time than the date given in those works, and moreover that he was no bad painter of miniature in enamel. I should like to know whether any other works by this artist exist. The enamel painters of that time do not seem to have been much noticed except Zincke, but there was a good school of enamel painting in England as well as on the Continent at that time. I have a very large and fine enamel by Craft, and a beautiful miniature by Bechdolf, a German: persons of whom little or nothing is known, and no mention of them made in work. any OCTAVIUS MORGAN. 10, Charles Street, St. James's.

EBENEZER BAILLIE.-Associated with the name of the poet Burns, the following newspaper extract may not be without interest in the pages of "N. & Q." I found it in The Scotsman of October 26, 1867 :

"A CENTENARIAN, AND COMPANION OF THE POET BURNS.-It may not be generally known that there lives at Whiting Bay, Island of Arran, a centenarian who was a companion of Robert Burns. His name is Ebenezer Baillie, and he is a native of Dalrymple, near Ayr. He was born May 7th, 1767, thus making him one hundred years and five months old. When a boy he was at school and slept in the same bed with the poet; his brother, a tailor,

also made clothes for him, and the two amused themselves writing verses together. Ebenezer came to Arran eighty years ago as a weaver, but farmed a little, and in summer employed himself at the herring fishing. He worked at weaving till he was ninety years of age. For the last six years he has mostly been confined to bed, but the other day he was sufficiently well to sit on a chair and have his likeness taken by a photographer. His faculties, we are told, are all sound; and as he is intelligent

and has a correct memory, he can talk freely of events which happened ninety years ago. He has a large and well built head, has been a temperately living man, and notwithstanding his great age, has the appearance of living for some time yet.-A. & S. Herald.” J. MANUEL.


"DIFFERENT TO."-Several years ago, I called attention in "N. & Q." to this corruption. It has spread greatly since then: in the numbers of How can one person or thing differ to another? “N. & Q.” for August are three instances of it.



THE PRONUNCIATION OF SOVEREIGN.-I was somewhat surprised the other day to hear a friend of mine defending suvvereign as being the correct pronunciation of sovereign. It strikes me that this is "an exploded idea," which should be put aside with Room, Lunnon, and the other maltreated words lately discussed in your pages. Surely, by this time, sovereign has been long enough in use to be thoroughly anglicised. Granted that the word came to us through the French souverair, it seems to me great affectation to allow our pronunciation to be constantly referring to this etymological fact. What is the opinion of your learned correspondents? ST. SWITHIN. EDWARD BARTON. Looking through some memoranda written some years ago, I came across the following inscription on the monument of Edward Barton, Ambassador of Queen Elizabeth to the Ottoman Porte, who, to avoid the plague raging during the year 1597 at Constantinople, took refuge in the adjacent islet of Halke (Xáλkn), where he, however, shortly afterwards fell a victim to the scourge, and was interred outside the principal door of the church attached to the convent dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and situated in a forest of cypress and pines, on the summit of one of its two mountains:

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mistaken, the first ambassador from the English Court to the Ottoman.

It is curious that many gravestones forming the pavement of the Trinity Abbey, on the same islet of Halke, bear epitaphs without mentioning the names of the persons buried there, but simply soliciting prayers for the repose of their soul. RHODOCANAKIS.


A NEW WORD.-Sensation novelists have much to answer for: not content with the construction of improbable plots, they put spurious and illsounding words in circulation. Prominent among these verbal barbarisms is thud, which, to the credit of lexicographers, has not yet found its It has an affected way into any dictionary. sound, and seems the fragmentary portion of the word soap-sud, pronounced with a lisping accent, thoap-thud. I do not know to whom the credit of inventing this ugly word belongs, but it is satisfactory to think that it is not recognised by any masters of style, and has no place in the writings of Froude, Macaulay, Hallam, Alison, Scott, and other formers of national taste. WILLIAM GASPEY.


ARMS OF THE KING OF ABYSSINIA. In a set of French plates on heraldry, of about the end of last century, I find an engraving of the coat borne by "Roi Abyssin, où d'Ethiopie." They are: Argent, a lion rampant gules, holding in its right paw a crucifix (the cross or, Our Saviour on it, argent). The shield is placed over two crossed Scourges, and the wreath of thorns surmounts it as a crest. I suppose this is quite an imaginary coat of arms. JOHN DAVIDSON.

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phical particulars of the following lawyers—all authors:

BIOGRAPHICAL QUERIES.-I shall feel obliged if any of your readers can send me any biogra

BABINGTON, Richard, On Auctions, 1826; On Set Off 1827. (Died 1829?)

BABINGTON, Zachary, Advice to Grand Jurors, 1677. BACON, Matthew, A new Abridgment of the Law, 1736. BALDWIN, Walter J. (a prisoner in the King's Bench), Punishment without Crime, 1813.

BALLANTINE, William, Statute of Limitations, 1810: (Died 1827-8?)

BANKS, Percival Weldon, On Controverted Elections, 1838. (Born 1806 ?) Died 1850. BARBER, J., On Tithes, 1816.

the Friends of BARNARD, Thomas, Observations on .. the Liberty of the Press, 1793. (On the Poor Laws, 1807?) BARNARDISTON, Thomas, Serjeant-at-Law, Reports,


BARNES, Henry (a secondary of the Court of Common Pleas), Practice, 1741, 3rd edit. 1790.

BARNHAM, J. C. (solicitor, Norwich), Questions for Law Students, 1836.

BARRETT, C. P., Overseer's Guide, 1840.

1, Powis Place, W.C.

BLOODY.-Any person who has mixed with the lower orders, as well as with soldiers and sailors, must have remarked how generally and offensively the epithet bloody is applied to all kinds of persons and things as meaning everything and yet meaning nothing, for it has nothing to say to blood. A man is a bloody fool, or a bloody rascal, without any supposition that he is an assassin. A bloody sight of clothes or money, or anything else, does not the least indicate that there is any blood upon them. Let any one translate this epithet in these phrases into any other language, and he will immediately see how absurd and incomprehensible it is, though his own ear may have got accustomed to it. Can any reader give an explanation of its HOWDEN. origin ?


CLERY.-In the Edinburgh Review, vol. xxxix. p. 102, mention is made of this person, the author of the well-known journal of the imprisonment of Louis XVI. and his family in the Temple, and reference is made to "his long services afterwards, and the fate he suffered for their sake "-i. e. the Bourbons. What was the nature of these services, what the fate he so suffered, and is there any printed memoir or other publication where G. these are detailed ?


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MR. GAY'S FABLES, WITH BEWICK'S WOODCUTS.-I have a small volume of Fables by the late Mr. Gay, printed in London by Savage and Easingwood, 1806, which contains sixty-nine woodcuts. Am I right in supposing that these cuts are by Bewick? In an old-book catalogue I lately saw advertised (as extremely rare), under the head of "Bewick," a copy of Gay's Fables, in every respect like mine except the date, which was given as 1816. H. FISHWICK.

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I want to know the origin of the latter phrase, and chapter and verse of St. Augustine? GEORGE LLOYD.


NAVAL SONGS.-I would feel obliged if any correspondent could tell me where I can find the words of an old English naval song, the chorus of which is somewhat to the following effect: "We'll rant and we'll roar

Like true British sailors;
We'll rant and we'll roar
Across the salt sea,
Until we strike soundings

In the Channel of Old England.
From Ushant to Dungeness
Are leagues -ty three."

I am under the impression they are to be found in a sea novel of some thirty or forty years old, introduced into the mouth of one of the charac


J. L.

I have an old manuscript song with these words: "As I walked through Bristol city, I heard a fair maid sing

In behalf of her sailor, her country, and king;
And she did sing so sweetly, and so sweetly sang she,
That of all the sorts of a calling, why a sailor for me.'


The tune is so quaint and pretty that I should be obliged to any one who would give me the rest of the verses, doggrel as they may be.



PRIOR OF THE LAZAR HOUSE. — In examining one of the miscellaneous volumes relating to the Duchy of Cornwall in the Public Record Office, I found the following receipt, which is, I think, sufficiently curious to deserve a place in your columns. We are in the habit of thinking

that the title of Prior ceased with the Reformation. It would be interesting to know whether the head of the Lazar House of St. Leonards is yet so distinguished. Davis Gilbert, in his Parochial History of Cornwall, vol. ii. p. 422, informs us that "Richard, Earl of Poictiers and of Cornwall [King of the Romans], made a free borough [of Launceston]," and granted to the townsmen the power to choose their own bailiffs. They were to pay, among other things, one hu dred shillings to the lepers of St. Leonard of Launceston. This receipt is no doubt for the above payment. The seal is evidently a mediæval one. vesica-shaped, charged with what seems to be a saint in a Gothic niche. It is impressed on a wafer between two sheets of paper. The reference to the document is "Augmentation Office, Miscell. Books, vol. lxix.”: —

It is

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