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A Medium of Intercommunication
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NEW POEMS by MATTHEW ARNOLD, late Professor of Poetry in the University of Oxford. Extra fcap. 8vo, cloth gilt, 6s. 6d. [Next ireek. LAURENCE BLOOMFIELD in IRELAND. A Modern Poem. By WILLIAM ALLINGHAM. Feap. 8vo, 78. THE POEMS OF ARTHUR HUGH CLOUGH, some time Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. With a Memoir by F. T. PALGRAVE. Second Edition, feap. 8vo, 68.
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LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 20, 1867.
NOTES:- Manna, 41- Folk-Lore: Herring Folk-LoreAncient Musical Custom at Newcastle Mid-day "Sticking"-Nose bleeding - Bonfires on the Eve of St. John, 42-The Rev. John Healey, Bromby, A.M., &c., Ib. - Culpepper Tomb at Feckenhamn - Literary Larceny - "Lucy Neal" in Latin-An End to all Things-Coat Cards, or Court Cards-Letter from Kimbolton Library-Source of Quotation wanted - Esparto Grass-Emigration, 43. QUERIES:- Alfred's Marriage with Alswitha - Authors wanted - Battle of Bunker's Hill-Inscription at Blenheim-"Leo pugnat cum Dracone"-Name, &c. wanted - National Portrait Exhibition: the Fortune TellerPoems, Anonymous-The Popedom - Portraits of Percy, Bishop of Dromore- Portrait of Mrs. Shelley - Solomon and the Genii- Sprouting Plates and Jars-Stains in old Deeds, &c.-John Stephens - Wallace, 45.
QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: - Lucifer - Hops in BeerGideon Ouseley Birthplace of Cromwell's Mother Archbishop of Spalatro's Sermon on Romans xiii. 23 24th of February - Leasings Lewd-Quotation, 47. REPLIES:-Elius Donatus de Grammatica: History of Printing, 49-Cornish Name of St. Michael's Mount, 51 - Cara Cowz in Clowze, Ib.- Parc aux Cerfs, 52- Battle of Baugé and the Carmichaels of that Ilk, 53-" Manuscrit venu de Ste Hélène"-Palæologus-"Olympia Morata "Bourbon Sprig - Highland Pistols- Robert Browning's "Boy and Angel:' Kynge Roberd of Cysille" - The Word "Dole"-Chevers Family- Johannes Scotus Erigena- - Dryden Queries: "Neyes" -Laying Ghosts in the Red Sea Engraved Outlines - Bishop Butler's best Book-Family of De Toni: Arms-Johnny Peep-The late Rev. R. H. Barham : 86 Dick's Long-tailed Coat"Walsh of Castle Hoel, &c., 54. Notes on Books, &c.
Is it known whether manna is ever found to fall in large drops from the atmosphere? I ask this question, as I witnessed a curious natural phenomenon in the South of Italy, respecting which I have never been able to satisfy myself. On a scorching forenoon of the month of May, as I was slowly wending my way towards the small village of Scalea, which will be found on the northern frontier and western coast of Calabria, I was surprised to observe a number of large drops fall around me-such drops as sometimes precede a thunder-storm. There were no clouds, no wind; everything was calm, and the sun shone in unclouded splendour about midday. I was much astonished, and exclaimed to my guide, "What is this? Whence came these drops ? once said, without a moment's hesitation, and as if he were accustomed to the phenomenon, "It is manna." I was of course incredulous, and having much difficulty in carrying on a conversation with one who spoke the Calabrese dialect, I dropped the subject.
27 He at
Afterwards, however, I found, on conversing with intelligent natives, that such drops of manna, or what they called manna, were not uncommon. They could give no explanation of the manner in which it was generated in the atmosphere; but they had no doubt that it was so, and it was
always during excessive heat that the drops were seen to fall. Of course it is well known that the woods of Calabria supply large quantities of manna, which is collected from two species of ash, Ornus Europea and Fraxinus rotundifolia. Is it possible that great heat may suck up the juice into the atmosphere, and that, being in some way condensed, it may fall in the way I witnessed? I found during my conversation with some of the natives that there appears suddenly at times on the leaves of plants, in a way they cannot explain, a kind of glutinous substance of a sweetish flavour, which stops their growth and is otherwise injurious. They call these leaves "foglie ammanate" (leaves affected by manna); and they speak also of "vino ammanato," from the grapes acquiring a peculiar flavour when covered with this substance. There is one shrub more particularly on which it appears, which they call "fusaro" or " fusaggine," growing luxuriantly in their hedges. It is so called from spindles being made of it, and is, I believe, the " spindel-baum of the Germans. I heard also that during the continuance of great heat a kind of dew falls, which they call "sinobbica," but in what way it differs from manna I could not make out. Possibly some of your correspondents may be able to throw light on some of these points which I have started.
It is curious to find Elian (De Naturá Animalium, book xv. chap. 7) giving an account of a natural phenomenon in India not differing much from my statement. He says:
"In India, and particularly in the country of the Prasii (who extended through the richest part of India from the Ganges to the Panjab), it rains liquid honey, which, falling on the grass and leaves of reeds, produces wonderfully rich pastures for sheep and oxen; the cattle are driven by the herdsmen to the parts where they know quantities of this sweet dew (ή δρόσος ἡ γλυκεῖα) have fallen. The animals enjoy a rich banquet on these pastures, and furnish very sweet milk (Tẹρtyλúkιoтov yáλa). There is no necessity to mix it with honey as the Greeks do."
Diodorus Siculus (book xvii. chap. 75) tells us of a tree "not unlike the oak, which distils (aroλeiße) honey from its leaves." Can any of your Indian correspondents tell us anything about this tree, or confirm Elian's account? Athenæus (book xi. chap. 102, ed. Schweighäuser, 1804,) quotes from Amyntas, the writer of an Indian itinerary, to the following effect:
Amyntas in his first book, speaking of the honey from the atmosphere (depouéiros) writes thus:-They collect it with the leaves, making it into the form of a Syrian cake (Taλdens Zuplakns); some make it into the form of a ball; and when they wish to enjoy it, breaking off a portion, they melt it in wooden cups called tabætæ, and, after they have passed it through a sieve, drink sweeter." it. It is much like diluted honey, though somewhat
C. T. RAMAGE.
HERRING FOLK-LORE.-Much has been written concerning the folk-lore of the herring, from the time of Martin, who told of the King of the Her"of rings, to Mr. J. F. Campbell's "Popular Tale how the fluke got his mouth curled for sneering at the herring king; and Pennant has mentioned some of the traditions that were believed in relation to the migratory habits of the herring. These traditions are not unfrequently grafted on to the West Highland reverence for the local laird and chieftain, an instance of which is recorded in some "Reminiscences of the Isle of Skye" (dating to about half a century since), published in the Argyllshire Herald, June 1, 1867. The writer is speaking of the Macleods of Dunvegan :
"I found that a curious tradition prevailed in the district in connection with the return of the laird to Dunvegan after a considerable absence, but of course no one is now found to attach any importance to the strange superstition. It was at one time believed by the people of Macleod's country, that a visit from their chief after a lengthened sojourn in another part of the kingdom would produce a large take of herrings in the numerous lochs which indent the west side of Skye; and it also formed part of the tradition, that if any female, save a Macleod, should cross the water to a small island opposite the castle, the fact would prove disastrous to that season's fishing." CUTHBERT BEDE.
"THE TRINITY HOUSE AND ALL SAINTS.-Yesterday being Trinity Sunday, in pursuance of a time-honoured custom, the Master, Deputy-Master, and Brethren of the Ancient and Honourable Corporation of the Trinity House attended officially in All Saints' parish church Newcastle. The Rev. Walter Irvine, M.A. preached on the occasion. The Master and Brethren were received and escorted to the church gates by the church officers, Messrs. Hails and Renwick. A noteworthy relic of the past' in connection with the service was the performance on the organ (on the entrance and exit of the Master and
Brethren) of the national air, Rule Britannia.' The
rendering of a secular air-even as an evidence of respect-has been objected to, but Mrs. Watson, the organist, cites the custom of half a century, and the example, within her own knowledge, of three generations of organists in All Saints' church-illustrating the saying that old J. MANUEL.
customs die hard.""
MAY-DAY "STICKING."-It is the custom at Warboys, Huntingdonshire, for certain of the poor of the parish to be allowed to go into Warboys Wood on May-day morning, for the purpose of gathering and taking away bundles of sticks. This annual May-day "sticking," as it is termed, was observed on May-day last, 1867. It may, possibly, be a relic of the old custom of going to
a wood in the early morning of May-day, for the purpose of gathering May-dew-a custom which, for its morality, must have been on a par with those that obtain in a mixed agricultural gang of present day. CUTHBERT BEDE. NOSE BLEEDING. A few years ago I knew a man engaged on the Brighton line, who informed me that he always wore a red riband round his throat to stop his nose from bleeding. E. L.
BONFIRES ON THE EVE OF ST. JOHN. - The custom of making large fires on the eve of St. John's day is annually observed by numbers of the Irish people in Liverpool. Contributions in either fuel or money to purchase it with are collected from house to house. The fuel consists of coal, wood, or in fact anything that will burn : the fireplaces are then built up with bricks in the streets, and lighted after dark. I believe the custom is common to every county in Ireland, so here; and the only reason for the observance 1 I have been informed by many Irish resident can get is, that "it is Midsummer." I subjoin a short notice of the custom from the Liverpool Mercury of June 29:
"FIRE-WORSHIP IN IRELAND.-The old Pagan fireworship still survives in Ireland, though nominally in honour of St. John. On Sunday night bonfires were observed throughout nearly every county in the province of Leinster. In Kilkenny, fires blazed on every hillside at intervals of about a mile. There were very many in the Queen's County, also in Kildare and Wexford. The effect in the rich sunset appeared to travellers very grand. The people assemble and dance round the fires, children jump through the flames, and in former times live coals were carried into the cornfields to prevent blight. Of course the people are not conscious that this midsummer celebration is a remnant of the worship of Baal. It is believed by many that the round towers were intended for signal fires in connection with this worship." J. HARRIS GIBSON.
THE REV. JOHN HEALEY BROMBY, A.M., SEVENTY YEARS VICAR OF HOLY TRINITY, HULL.
On June 22 last, I availed myself of an opportunity which previous flying visits to Hull had denied of visiting this aged clergyman, now in his ninety-seventh year, as he himself told me. On presenting my card, after an interval of nearly thirty years, his daughter informed me that her father's memory had failed; and that, unless my business was urgent, be begged to decline the interview. I said my business was simply to shake hands, and say farewell; and I was sure that, if she named Clemens Alexandrinus, he would remember me. I was then immediately admitted. His hand, attenuated indeed, was cool and healthy to the touch, his dark eye bright and clear; he sat on a small elbow chair, and in a light coloured tight morning gown. I recalled many circumstances to his recollection - as his
approval of the laws and questions of a debating society which he allowed to hold meetings in the vicar's school; a sermon he published with the title "EIPHNIKON," which, being printed in English for want of Greek type, I had read as eiphnikon, and had applied to a clergyman who lodged in the same house with me and had been master of a grammar school at Leicester to know its meaning, which he could not tell me, but which I afterwards, on learning Greek, found to be eirenikon. The aged vicar repeated this word εἰρηνικὸν twice, and said "Ah! yes, εἰρηνικόν.” This sermon was said to have given offence to the Archbishop of York, before whom it was preached, as containing too comprehensive and liberal views for a churchman. I recalled Clemens Alexandrinus to his recollection, and the interview I had with him and my Greek teacher, the Rev. John Blezard, on the grammatical construction of a passage quoted by the vicar as a motto to one of his sermons, when they gave me some better insight into the doctrine of "attraction of cases of I alluded to the marriage licence he granted, and the name of my father-in-law, Major
Jackson, R.M.-all which he bore in mind as freshly as a young man. The only point in which he failed, although I tried it twice, was the expression in Hebrew, we are men and brethren," for I always considered him a Hebrew scholar. Rabbi Hassan, reading with me, always so spoke of his interviews with the vicar. On one occasion, with the aid of my late accomplished wife (a pupil of Mozart through Attwood), I supplied the vicar with the musical notes of the Hebrew accents, as chanted by Hassan in a manner which even the German Jews at Hull admired. The late vicar, for he retired a few months ago, was particularly interested when I stated to him the literary acquisitions I had made, and that I had communicated more replies to "N. & Q." than any other contributor. He would have arisen at parting, but I restrained him and said: "Nothing can prevent our soon meeting again." He then replied: "I am happy to have seen you, and hope we shall meet in a better world."
T. J. BUCKTON.
Streatham Place, S.
CULPEPPER TOMB AT FECKENHAM.-The tomb of Sir Martin Culpepper at Feckenham, in Worcestershire, has been subjected to worse treatment than the Porter monument at Claines in the same county, for it has been (as I am informed by members of the Worcester Diocesan Architectural Society) buried under the chancel floor during some recently so-called restoration of the building. The quaint inscription written by the Lady Joyce Culpepper, his wife, beginning —
"Weep, whoever this tomb doth see, Unless more hard than stone thou be,"
is quoted in Nash's History, but the Culpeppers have long been extinct in the district, and their property has passed into other hands.
THOMAS E. WINNINGTON.
tiful and well-known poem, entitled "Rock me LITERARY LARCENY.-The authorship of a beauto sleep, Mother," is now in dispute in the United author; one, Mrs. Elizabeth A. C. Akers, of WashStates. Two persons claim to have been the ington, the edition of whose works published by the eminent firm of Ticknor & Fields includes it written it in Italy in 1860, whence she sent it to as one of her productions. Mrs. A. claims to have the Philadelphia Saturday Evening Post. As published there it consisted of six stanzas. În a vindicates the claims of M. W. Ball, of Elizabeth, pamphlet which has just appeared, O. A. Morse New Jersey, to its authorship. In this pamphlet it is claimed that Ball wrote it in 1857, and read it in manuscript to a number of friends, who now testify to the fact. The poem as he wrote it contained fifteen stanzas, and is now for the first time given in full. Now, one or the other of these parties is guilty of a literary larceny, but which much that both respectively had the talent to one is a question. It complicates this matter very have produced this poem. Has this poem been republished in England, or is anything known of has any other like it ever before been known? its authorship? It is a very remarkable case, and
Frankfort-on-Main. W. W. M. "LUCY NEAL" IN LATIN. — I copy the following from a penny paper called Pasquin, published in 1847. As only eight numbers appeared, it is perhaps as well that this "fly" should be preserved in the "amber" of "N. & Q. : "
Carmina Canino-Latina Ethiopica.
Si mecum hic accumberes, quam felix essem, Neale ! "Epistolam accepi, nigrâ signatum cerâ,
Eheu! puellam nitidam abstulerat mors fera,
Si mecum hic accumberes, quam felix essem, Neale!
“Notæ, a Doctissimo Dunderhead scripta. "*Alabama. Regio notissima Transatlantica. Incolæ sane mirabiles sunt. Es alienum grande conflant, sed solvere semper nolunt. Libertatis gloriosi, servitutem sanctissime colunt.
"+Quis fuerit Bælius, incertum est. Non dubito quin repudiator fuerit, ut Alabamiensis.
capilli, sed cutis, colorem, poeta describit. "Cave, lector, ne in errorem facilem incidas. Non
"Luce. Verbum ambiguum hoc est. Consule doctissimum Prcut, literarum et roris Hibernici peritissimum." JN. WN.