Imágenes de páginas

generally a considerable quantity of sulphur, which in the process of combustion becomes converted into sulphurous acid, which has an immense affinity for water, and in consequence combines freely with any damp it encounters. Water absorbs thirty-three times its volume of this acid at natural temperatures. All aqueous solutions of sulphurous acid pass into sulphuric acid when exposed to the air. This again has great affinity for lime, and will convert any carbonate into the sulphate (gypsum), which is to a certain extent soluble in water. A very curious circumstance occurred to my father in connection with this subject, but I must defer an account of it till next week. It is probable that if wood charcoal was employed instead of coke the mischief would not be so serious, if it was not entirely prevented. GEORGE VERE IRVING.

PALACE OF HOLYROOD HOUSE (3rd S. xii. 351.) Many years ago I examined the stain on the boards of Queen Mary's chamber strictly in the spirit of a medical jurist. My conclusion was that, if the appearance is not what tradition asserts it to be, it is precisely like that which the reality must have been. The body of a man, pierced with innumerable fatal dagger wounds, thrust into a corner and allowed to lie there until every drop of blood had drained out of it, would leave exactly such a stain as this. I have lately examined the far less distinct traces in a baker's house opposite to the Cross at Tewkesbury. Upon what evidence rests the tradition that these are the blood of Edward Prince of Wales? CALCUTTENSIS.

WELLS IN CHURCHES (3rd S. xii. 132.) — In answer to your correspondent who wishes to know of any other instance of a well in a church besides that of St. Eloi, at Rouen, I beg to inform him that there is a very interesting one in the south transept of Ratisbon cathedral. It is of a singular Gothic character, with figures representing our Saviour and the woman of Samaria. It is noticed in Murray's Handbook for Southern GerC. J.



"Quem Deus vult perdere, prius dementat." There is no such word as either opeveiv or anoOpere; and there is not, nor could be, in Euripides, such a line as is here given, whether by Malone or by D. P. The first has no resemblance to an Iambic at all: the second violates two of the elementary laws of the Tragic Iambic, having no casura, and having a dactyl in the fifth foot.


Hagley, Stourbridge.

BISHOP HAY: "DAULEY" (3rd S. xii. 198, 365.)-We have learned that some 500 pages of memoirs of the Right Rev. Dr. George Hay, Bishop of Daulis, have been traced out for insertion in Scotichronicon, now publishing by the Rev. Dr. Gordon, of St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, Glasgow. Bishop Hay was one of the most erudite of Roman Catholic prelates in Scotland, and lived in an age of great excitement and persecution. His title in the MSS. is Daulia, Daulis, and Dauley, which latter he was commonly called and signed by. His chapel in Edinburgh was stormed and burned in the riots of 1779. He was a strong Jacobite, and followed Prince Charles Stuart into England, and in his subsequent retreat into Scotland. He wrote voluminously, specially three works, The Pious Christian, The Devout Christian, and The Sincere Christian; as also on Usury and on Miracles, and a good few of his manuscripts are in Blairs College. He had printed correspondence on articles of Faith with Bishop Wm. Abernethy Drummond, of Hawthornden; and with Principal Campbell, of Marischall College, Aberdeen; and with the renowned Rev. Dr. Alexander Geddes, one of his priests in the Enzie, whom he suspended for attending the parish kirk of Cullen. These MSS. of Bishop Hay will throw light on unknown events from 1771 to 1811, and will embody the fullest history of the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland since the Reformation, ever printed. Thousands of letters of Bishop Hay, and of his coadjutor Bishop Geddes, cousin of Dr. A. Geddes, are at Preshome; copious extracts from which will be printed. E. S.

BIRTHPLACE OF CROMWELL'S MOTHER (3rd S. xii. 48.)-There can be little doubt that the tradition as to the Protector's mother having been born in Rosyth Castle, Fifeshire, is incorrect. It may be true that he visited it; for, curiously enough, no less an authority than Lord Hailes says that these Stewarts were Cromwell's maternal ancestors. It is stated in the Annals of Scotland (vol. ii. p. 184, and iii. pp. 89-90) that three Stewarts fought and fell at Halidon under the banner of their chief, Robert the young High Steward (afterwards Robert II.)-viz. his two uncles, Sir James of Rosyth (maternal ancestor of Cromwell), and John of Daldon; also Alan of Dreghorn (a son of Bonkill), the paternal ancestor of Charles I. This descent is thus noticed, half contemptuously, by the great historian of the Protector: "From one Walter Stewart, who had accompanied Prince James of Scotland, when our inhospitable politic Henry IV. detained him," &c. "Walter did not return with the prince to Scotland; having 'fought tournaments,' having 'made an advantageous marriage,' settled there" [in England], &c. "The genealogists explain in intricate tables how Elizabeth Stewart, mother of

Oliver Cromwell, was indubitably either the 9th or 10th or some other fractional part of half a cousin to Charles I. King of England." (Letters of Cromwell, i. 32.) The following notices, however, seem to point at a different ancestor for the Protector. In M. Michel's most interesting work (Les Ecossais en France, i. 212), a Sir John Steward, "surnommé Scot-Angle," and his two sons, Sir John and Thomas, figure during the campaigns of Henry V. and the Duke of Bedford, and the father was ransomed, when a prisoner to the French, by the king. They afterwards established themselves at Swaffham, Norfolk, and in Ely. The father was probably the Sir John Steward who acted as the queen's "se war" at the coronation (Feb. 24, 1420-1) of Katharine, queen of Henry V. (Riddell's Tracts, 1835, p. 69, note), having perhaps attended her from France. these Norfolk and Ely Stewards, howsoever descended, we certainly find the ancestors of Elizabeth Steward, who was doubtless born at Ely, her father's residence. The arms borne by one of them are remarkable. In the 11th of Henry VI. (1433) the seal of Thomas Steward of Swaffham displayed a lion rampant, debruised by a bendlet or ribbon sinister. (Dashwood's Sigilla Antiqua, cited in the Herald and Genealogist, No. xxiii. p. 420.) The usual Stewart coat being the well-known fesse checquy, the above indicates an illegitimate descent-perhaps from the royal house-whereas the Rosyth branch, though, strictly speaking, not "royal," having sprung off before the marriage of the Steward and Marjory Bruce, was indisputably legitimate. ANGLO-SCOTUS.



P.S. Since writing the above, I dipped into Mark Noble's work, and I find (in vol. ii.) an account of a window put up by " William Steward, Esq.," the father of Elizabeth Cromwell, in his house at Ely, displaying the Stewart pedigree, emerging from the fabled Banquo, " sitting on the ground. An extraordinary pictorial grant of arms, said to have been conferred by Charles VI. of France on "Andrew Stewart, Chivalier, fiz Alexandre, fiz Walter a Dundevayle, Seneschal d'Ecosse," for slaying a lion, which Michel, who gives an illustration of it (vol. i. p. 92), considers quite fictitious, is minutely detailed. These, and other historical and genealogical delinquencies on the part of the reverend gentleman, have evidently move the ire of Carlyle.


VENT: WENCE: WHENCE (3rd S. xii. 131.) – A. A. asks a plain question, and is entitled to a plain answer. "Has wence [Kentish for ways] anything to do with the adverb whence?" The answer is nothing whatever in the faintest degree.

Wence is a mere corruption of wents, the plural of went, which I have explained already (3rd S. xii. 198). I have since found an additional corro

boration of this in the newly published Levins's Manipulus Vocabulorum, edited by Mr. Wheatley. In col. 66 we find, "A WENT, lane, viculus, angiportus." It is from the verb wend, to go or turn; Germ. wenden; A.-S. wendan; Moso-Gothic, wandjan. But whence can be traced through the Old English whennes and whanene (used in Layamon) to the A.-S. hwanon, and thence to the Moeso-Gothic hwathro; for just as we find thethens or thethen for thence, and sithence or sithen for since, there was no doubt a form whethens or whethen for whence, which makes the connection with hwathro the more easy to perceive. This is from the root hwas, who; Germ. wer: which has also produced the interrogative words where, whence, why, whether, whither. See Gabelentz and Löbe's MasoGothic Dictionary, s. v. "was." The question, then, resolves itself into this: "Is the MosoGothic wandjan, to turn, connected with the word hwas, who? The absurdity of the supposition is patent to every comparative philologist.


With respect to the word gate in Margate and Ramsgate, I have to suggest that gate means properly a way, a means of access, and that they were named from the ways down to the sea which are found there. Every Scotchman knows the phrase to "gang one's gate" for "to go one's way," and the word is of the most respectable antiquity, being no other than the Moso-Gothic gatwo, a street. Gate, in the sense of a door, is a much later idea. The towns existed long before the gateways "of the Tudor period" were constructed.

I must say that I do not quite understand why, in the present state of comparative philology, such wild hypotheses should be proposed in print. It would be deemed unscholarly to suggest that Mary Queen of Scots was the Mary who was In the same way, married to Philip of Spain. the suggestion of connection between wence and whence seems to me to savour of the most unscholarly recklessness of assertion. Why etymology should any longer be selected as the science wherein accuracy is to be accounted as of no consequence, I am at a loss to understand. Why should the making of suggestions precede investigation? WALTER W. SKEAT. Cambridge.



Lyra Germanica. The Christian Life. Translated from the German by Catherine Winkworth, and illustrated by John Leighton, F.S.A., E. Armitage, A.R.A., and F. Madox Brown. (Longman.)

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well-chosen examples of the devotional songs of the Ger mans. Of the first series of her Lyra Germanica, which consisted of Hymns for the Sundays and chief Festivals of the Christian Year, a beautifully illustrated edition has already appeared. With what satisfaction it was received, is evident from the fact that we have now to record the appearance of a similar edition of The Christian Life, which contains, among others, hymns of a more personal and individual character than those in the former series - - hymns adapted to particular circumstances or periods of life, and to particular states of feeling. No expense, no pains have been spared to make the beauty of the volume equal to its interest. Though the principal share of the illustrations has been entrusted to Mr. Leighton, the pencils of Mr. Armitage and Mr. Madox Brown have been called in to assist. Some of these designs are of remarkable beauty; all are characterised by a most reverent treatment of the holy scenes and thoughts which they embody; and those who think that a Christmas book should partake of the character of that holy yet joyous season, will find that this splendid edition of Miss Winkworth's Christian Life exactly meets all their requirements.

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R. H. B. will find five articles in our last volume on the song," When Adam was laid in soft slumber." The song itself at p. 163.

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Mr. Smiles is again happy in the choice of his subject; for, on the present occasion, he has entered upon an historical inquiry of which perhaps it would be difficult to decide whether its claim to novelty or interest be the THE APing to the History of CHRIST. Translated from the higher. When we consider that, according to the estimate of Sismondi, the religious persecutions which followed the revocation of the Edict of Nantes cost France not far short of a million of her best and most industrious subjects, and the vast influence which the immigration of French Huguenots at that time has exercised on the political and industrial history of this country, it is somewhat remarkable that it should be left to a writer of the THE SONGS and

originals in Greek, Latin, Syriac, &c. With Notes, Scripture References, and Prolegomena. By B. HARRIS COWPER, Editor of "The Journal of Sacred Literature," &c.

present day to make it the subject of his special attention. Several important contributions to such a work as the present have been published within the last few years, such as Mr. Burn's List of Foreign Refugees, and the similar Lists edited by Mr. Durrant Cooper for the Camden Society. But the subject has never before been systematically treated. Mr. Smiles does not confine himself, however, strictly to the Huguenots and their influences; he reviews the earlier immigration of foreign artisans into this country, and the encouragement held out to them from time to time by the more enlightened of our rulers. To many readers, however, the portions of the book most replete with interest and amusement will be the chapters in which Mr. Smiles treats of the men of science and learning, and the men of industry among the Huguenots; and yet more especially his notices of the descendants of the Refugees-the Laboucheres, Romillys, and Lefevres, who, in public life at the present day, exhibit the high moral and intellectual qualities for which their progenitors were distinguished.

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