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natural attractions, there was an aged female, Mrs. Clayton, mother of the proprietress on the north side of the stream, that every visitor desired to see. She was born in January, 1760, and until lately assisted her daughter, Mrs. Arthur. Her health was uniformly good; she generally rose at 6 A.M., and retired at 9 P.M., and walked often to Gravesend, a distance of three miles, without apparent fatigue-this she did within two months of her decease. On the 3rd ult., whilst engaged in the cress-house, she was seized with a trembling fit-the precursor of dissolution-from which time she gradually sank, until Sunday, the 14th, when, after taking an affectionate leave of her family, she closed her eyes as if for sleep, and gently passed away, aged 107 years and seven months."

THE OLD MODE OF SWEARING IN THE NEW MAYOR OF DUBLIN.-The late accomplished antiquary and courteous clergyman, Sir Erasmus Borrowes, Bart., with whom I had the pleasure of corresponding from 1857 to 1862, sent me in the former year the following extract from the records of the Irish Exchequer. It refers to his progenitor, who in 1634 was knighted by Strafford, and in 1645 was elected M.P. for Banagher; and is, I think, from its quaint minuteness of detail and its curious uncertain orthography, worthy of being preserved in "N. & Q.: ".

"30th September, 1633. Memorandum. That this day the Mayor, Recorder, and Aldermen of the Cittie of Dublin came in theire scarlett gownes before the Right Honorable Thomas Viscount Wentworth, Lord Deputy General of this kingdome, in his Majesties Castle of Dublin, where his Lordship being sett on his chaire of state in the Presence Chamber, the Mayor delivered to him the white staff and sworde of the Cittie; and then after Mr. Serjeant Catelleyn, the Recorder, had made an eloquent oration, he presented Robert Dixon, Esq., to be Mayor of this Cittie of this ensuing year; who having first taken the oath of the Kinge's Supremicie, and the oath of his office as Mayor, redd unto him by Robert Kennedy, Esq., the Kinge's Remembrancer, the Lord Deputy delivered unto hym the staffe of authoritie and sworde of government of this cittie, which being done, Sir Richard Bolton, Knight, Lord Chief Baron, very learnedlie and gravelie declared unto the said new Mayor the points of his chardge and dutie of his place, with admonition to dischardge them accordinglie, who having ended, the Lord Deputy with greate gravitie and wisdom did further advertise and admonish the said Mayor to the faithfull and due execution and administration of justice in his saide office, to the advancement of his Majestie's service, and honor and good of the Cittie; and after much graciousness intimatinge how reddie hee would bee to assiste and countenance the saide Cittie in all theire

just and lawfull occasions; and soe his Lordship rysinge up retired himselfe into the withdrawinge chamber, and the saide Mayor and Cittyzens departed the Castle to perform the other ceremonies of the Cittie, as on that daie accustomed."

Seaton-Carew, co. Durham.


CHAPEL OF ST. BLAISE, IN WESTMINSTER ABBEY.-The vestry, or revestiarium, of the Abbey has generally been called by this name. In this is a mural painting of a female saint, by the side of which is what has generally been called a gridiron. The place is very dark; but taking

advantage of a very light evening, when the rays of the sun shone direct on the window, I found that the saint carried a book, and that the object was more like an iron bedstead. A reference to Dr. Husenbeth's book at once showed it was St. Faith. In a very curious MS. on the Abbey, which has kindly been sent me for inspection, I find no mention of a chapel or altar to St. Blaise; but there is of an altar of St. Faith, which was under the care of the "revestiarius." I think this is conclusive on the point. Mr. G. Gilbert Scott (Gleanings from Westminster Abbey, p. 37) had already suggested that it is "mistakenly" called the Chapel of St. Blaise.

Poets' Corner.


A. A.

ACTION OF HORSES.-Has it ever been determined whether horses, in moving, agree in the manner and succession in which the legs are lifted? Are the two legs of the same side lifted at the same time, or is their movement diagonal or crosswise? I mean, that they lift the left hind-foot after the right fore-foot. Ancient artists do not seem to have agreed on this point. Of the former, we have an example in the gait of the four celebrated horses at Venice; and of the latter in the feet of the horses which are on the Arch of Titus. Perhaps some of your correspondents who have watched closely the movement of horses will be able to determine the point, and say whether there is strict uniformity in all.

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abundant possession of illustration of other kinds, but I cannot make out the intention or meaning of camalion, nor what Gabrielle is. My idea is, that it is a proper name, analogous to English, Arthur; Danish, Waldemar, Abel, Palne, &c.; German, Hackelbernd, Dietrich, Berchtold, &c.: but I am unable to identify it. I may add that, in the local notions prevalent here, I meet with strict analogies to both Thiele's "Helrakker" (Danske Almues overtroiske Meninger, p. 164), and Molbech's "Helrakke" (Dansk Glossarium, p.332), as also with the "unbaptized babies" notion, and the "impious predilection for the chase" legend; but nothing whatever that gives either professed explanation of, or clue to, the meaning of the prefix in the name. J. C. ATKINSON.

Danby in Cleveland.

"GRANDY NEEDLES."-It is, or was, the custom at Kendal for young people to assemble in the Vicar's Fields on Easter Tuesday; and, after spending the afternoon there, to return in procession through the streets," threading grandy needles" (Nicholson). I take it this describes the movement of a dance; but what does "grandy" mean? JOHN W. BONE.

HOLLINGBERY. Can anyone give me information as to this name and family? The earliest record I find is on a monument in St. James's church, Dover; which says that Col. John Hollingbery, deputy-governor of Dover Castle, and thrice mayor, died in 1709. After this, I can learn nothing down to the Rev. Drake Hollingbery, Rector of Winchelsea, Sussex, 1768. Where did the name come from to Dover; and are there any of the name and family now living? T. W. R.

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"Where Ellen's hand had taught to twine
The ivy and Idæan vine."

Lady of the Lake, canto 1. stanza 26. Can any of your botanical readers tell us what is the Idæan vine? There is a neat but humble native plant, common enough I dare say about Loch Katrine (Vaccinium vitis idea); but it is a stiff little shrub, something like boxwood, which no power, either of poet or lady fair, could teach to twine. Then what did Scott mean? His notices of native plants are usually very correct. P. E. N.


"LAUND" IN LANCASHIRE NAMES OF PLACES. I have found in five maps of Lancashire, published in 1666, 1673, 1680, 1724, and 1751, a place called "The Laund," N.E. or S.E. (generally the latter), of Admarsh or Edmarsh, in Bleasdale; and both the place intended and the meaning of the name have puzzled me. My dictionaries only give laund, as meaning a lawn " (obsolete), and lawn (in its first sense) as open space between woods." Having just met



with a fuller explanation in Whitaker's History of Whalley, I think it worth making a note of. He says that

"Lawnds, by which are meant parks within a forest, were enclosed in order to chace them [the deer] with greater facility, or, by confinement, to produce fatter venison."

In the map of Whalley, in Whitaker, there occur Old Laund, New Laund, Chipping Laund, and Radholme Laund.


In W. Yates's Map of Lancashire, published in 1786, both Edmarsh and "The Laund " omitted; nor does the latter, so far as I can find, appear in the Ordnance Survey.

I shall feel much obliged to any reader who can be so good as to inform me what place is meant by "The Laund," and how its name has come to disappear from the maps; what its position was relatively to Fairsnape-a place that I find and which is duly in the Ordnance Map; and, mentioned in the 34th Elizabeth and subsequently, lastly, what the derivation of the word laund is; with authorities.


OLIVER MATTHEWS.-Can you furnish me with any information respecting Oliver Matthews, and his work styled,

"The Abbreviation of divers most true and Auncient Britaine Chronicles, brieflie expressing the foundation of the most famous decayed cittie Caer Sows, or Dinas Southwen, the most Ancient in Britain, Troy-Newydd alone excepted, and of some other famous Cities in Britain. By Oliver Matthews, Gentl.: Maie, 1616."

Is the Abbreviation of any value? And does a copy of it exist in the British Museum ?* E. H.

MORE FAMILY.-Can any reader of "N. & Q." inform me aught concerning an Abel More, living 1677, of the Company of Merchant Adventurers, remarkable for being a great rich citizen, and who were his descendants? And also of Stephen Moore, living in London 1640-41, deacon of a small religious society holding secret and irregular religious meetings, which afterwards met quite openly in Deadman's Place, Southwark, on Jan. 18, 1640-41 ? Address H. Á. B., Mr. Lewis, 136, Gower Street, Euston Square.

"THE NAKED TRUTH" CONTROVERSY, 16741684.-Is a full account of this controversy to be found anywhere? William Penn seems to have started it by his folio broadside entitled "Naked Truth needs no Shift," printed in 1674; but it was a work by Dr. Herbert Crofts, Bishop of Hereford, which caused all the stir and excitement which ensued:

"The Naked Truth; or, The True State of the Primitive Church. By an humble Moderator. London, 1675." 4to.

[* No copy of this work is to be found in the Catalogues of the British Museum or the Bodleian.-ED.]

This produced a brisk discharge of pamphlets | ἄνω καὶ κάτω φερόμενα, καὶ περιτρεπόμενα, καὶ πρὶν by Bishop Burnet, Dr. Francis Turner, Sir Roger | Anpeñvai àmióvta. L'Estrange, Edmund Hickeringill, &c., &c. A list of pamphlets, or any information on the subject, will oblige.

Who wrote Lex Talionis, &c., London, 1676, and the similar pamphlet, Naked Truth Whipt and Stript? Q. Q. PERE LA CHAISE AND EDICT OF NANTES. Where is to be found the letter of Père La Chaise stating the method he adopted for gaining the consent of Louis XIV. to the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes? E. C. POLKINHORN.-May an Antipodean reader (not connected, by the bye, with Macaulay's New Zealander) ask some one of your numerous correspondents to be kind enough to supply any interesting notices of the old Cornish family of Polkinghorne they may have met with?

In Lower's Family Names is the following: "An estate in the parish of Gwinear, county of Cornwall, where the family were resident in the 13th century.-C. S. Gilbert's Cornwall.”

In the State Papers, 4th Henry VIII., Nov. 1572, the name of Nich. Polkenhorn appears as a debtor to Henry VII.

In the Calendar of State Papers, from James I. 1611 to Charles I. 1631, the name of Roger Polkinghorne frequently occurs as one actively employed in suppressing piracy on the coasts of Cornwall and Devon.

These, Sir, are the only notices I can find of this ancient family, and I should feel much obliged by your kindly noticing my request; for in this half of the world we have no field of investigation, such as old books afford. Such must be my apology for troubling you with this letter from РАКЕНА.

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στείχουσα μάρψει τοὺς κακούς, ὅταν τύχῃ.

16. Πάντα Τύχη καὶ Μοῖρα, Περίκλεες, ἀνδρὶ δίδωσιν. 17. Αρα ὁ σοφὸς Θεοφιλέστατος, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο εἰδαιμονέστατος.—Aristotle.

18. Tò cóпvevσtov Taïs Ovσíais Entηtéov.-Aristotle. 19. Φιλοσοφία Ἑλλήνων λόγων ψύφος.

20. 's ovôév eloɩ decor, quod ille olim de Herculis


22. Ex antiquis nonnullus Hominem vocavit Tò Tepimoúdaσtov Oeų Šŵov.

23. Ὁ Θεὸς οὐ φίλιππος, οὐδὲ φίλορνις, ἀλλὰ φιλο dvopos.

24. Δοκεῖς τὰ Θεῶν σὺ ξυνετὰ νικῆσαί ποτε,
Καὶ τὴν δίκην που μάκρ ̓ ἀποικεῖσθαι βροτῶν
Ἡ δ ̓ ἐγγύς ἐστιν, οὐχ ὁρωμένη δ ̓ ὁρᾷ.


I am much obliged to the correspondents who have kindly answered four of my wants, viz., Nos. 1,7,8, 10. As to the first, it is curious that S. Bernard should quote a translation of the Septuagint instead of quoting the Vulgate. The passage forms No. 12 of the Sententia of S. Bernard appended to the Opera Genuina, published by Gauthier, Paris, 1856, vol. iii. p. 438. I subjoin it, that it may be traced, which I am unable to do, especially as there is no index to this edition : —

"Duas ad intelligendum se condidit universitatis Auctor creaturas, Hominem et Angelum. Hominem justificant fides et memoria. Angelum beatificant intellectus et præsentia. Et quia homines quandoque perducendi sunt ad æqualitatem Angelorum, necesse est ut interim justificentur per fidem, et proficiant ad intellectum. Scriptum est enim: Nisi credideritis, non intelligetis. Itaque Fides via est ad intelligendum."

There is a similar quotation in Bishop Taylor's noble sermon, the Via Intelligentia, which I cannot find in the Vulgate :—

"Obedite et intelligetis, saith the prophet: Obey and be humble, leave the foolish affections of sin, and then ye shall understand. That's the first particular: all remaining affections to sin hinder the learning and understanding of the things of GOD."-Works, vol. viii. p. 371, Eden's ed.

Q. Q.

1. "The belief of ye Theosophic Gnostics that ye Eon Christ left y man Jesus before his crucifixion, and that of ye Marcionites, that ye seeming body of Christ was a phantom incapable of suffering, make it evident that they could have had no notion of ye doctrine of Atonement as it appears in modern creeds, a doctrine which theologians have represented as ye distinguishing feature of Christianity. But on this subject there was no controversy between them and ye early catholic Christians, to whom ye doctrine was equally unknown."

2. Where does Calvin say


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"The thridde cause, that ought to meve a man to contrition, is drede of the day of dome, and of the horrible 21. Bona tam evanida tamen et fugacia, rà peines of Helle. For as St. Jerome sayth: At every

* Continued from p. 169.

time that me remembreth of the day of dome, I quake; for when I ete or drinke, or do what so I do, ever semeth

me that the trompe sowneth in min eres: riseth ye up that ben ded, and cometh to the jugement."

J. W. T. SACKBUT.-In John Trapp's Commentary on St. John's Gospel, xviii. 5, speaking of the traitor Judas, he says, "but being full of the Devil he was past grace, and could blush no more than a sackbut." Why a sackbut? S. BEISLY.

SPANISH ARMADA.-In an old MS. giving some curious particulars respecting the Armada, vercas and zambras are enumerated among the ships prepared. What were they? There were also "tow ouens in a boat." What were they? It is said that the Spaniards were coming over แ to possess the roones of all the noblemen in England." What is that? R.

STEP: COUSIN RIGHT.-I should be obliged if any reader of "N. & Q." would give me the etymology and meaning of the word step, in stepfather, step-son, &c., and also of the word cousin; and inform me of the meaning of right, in the legal expression "right heirs," and of the reason for its use? T. B. SIKES.

ROBERT TEMPEST, citizen and draper of London and merchant of the Staple at Calais, by his will dated August 30, 1550, leaves a legacy of 10%. to "Thomas Ellis schoolmaster." Can any one tell me of what school Ellis was the master?

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ETCHING BY QUEEN OF WIRTEMBERG.—I sess an exquisite etching by the late Queen of Wirtemburg, who died in 1828. She was the daughter of George III., the Princess Charlotte Augusta Matilda, Princess Royal of England. It has her monogram-"C. A. M., 1784." Is it generally known that she was an amateur artist? The subject is "A lady lying down, running her hands through her hair, to listen to a bird singing on a cage. It is really finely done. I can give its pedigree, and prove its authorship. R. H.

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(3.) The Temple Musick, by Arthur Bedford, 1712, 8vo. (4.) The Music of the Church, by J. A. La Trobe, 1831, 8vo, art. "The Chant." (5.) A Treatise concerning the Lawfulness of Instrumental Musick in Holy Offices. By Henry Dodwell, M.A. Second edition, 1700. The use of melody in the services of prayer and praise came, of course, into the Christian church from the Jewish. Three several kinds of sacred song appear to be recognised in Holy Scripture; answering, perhaps, to the triple division of the Apostle in Eph. v. 19. 1. The canticle, or song of one person, like that of Hannah. 2. The hymn, or symphonious melody, such as the Song of the Three Children. 3. The alternate, or responsorial, as Miriam's Song of Triumph. Arthur Bedford, who had deeply studied this subject, thus sums up his researches in the concluding paragraph of his fourth chapter (p. 90): Temple to have a very great resemblance with our "Hitherto we clearly see the method of singing in the well as vocal music, so have we. cathedral worship. If they had their instrumental, as If their singers stood in the desks, and the boys stood directly under them, all cloathed in white linen, so it is with us. If they had their precentor to begin their tunes and their Psalms, so have we. If they had singers who were Levites, or might be of another tribe, we have also some which are ordained, and others in a lay capacity. If they answered each other in singing, or sang by turns, so do we. If they had various ways of singing, so have we. times we do all begin together, as in singing or saying the Creed, or the Lord's Prayer. Sometimes the people answer with a low voice, as in the Confession; and sometimes in a louder voice, as in the Gloria Patri. Sometimes we read each verse by turns, as in the chanting of


the Psalms; sometimes the people follow the minister in singing the same words, as at the beginning of the Litany; sometimes in different words, as at the Responses."]

HAKEWELL'S MSS.-I shall feel very grateful for the following information: -1. What was "The Collection of Hakewell's [Manuscripts]," referred to by Sir William Lee, Knt., Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench in 1739, in his Four Judgments in the Case of Olive v. Ingram (7. Mod. 264)? 2. What has become of "The Collection"? 3. If dispersed, whether any, and which, of its members are still in esse? And if so, where?

I have inquired in vain at the Inns of Court (which possess, they say, none of that eminent Parliamentarian's MSS.), at the British Museum (which possess but a few detached essays and speeches, and nothing like a collection of those even), and at Westminster Abbey-where all information was denied me, unless I could show myself to be a "canon residentiary": the library of that public institution being, it seems, considered the "private library" of the incumbents.

Hakewell is last mentioned in the records of his time as a Master in Chancery under the Commonwealth, in 1652.

The "Collection" in question appears to have contained cases adjudged" of a constitutional nature, with his commentaries thereon. The Chief-Justice of George II. cited from one of them "the opinion of the Judges (4 or 14 Jac. I.), that a feme sole, if she has a freehold, may vote for members of parliament." And again, on a subsequent day (7 Mod. 271), he expressly said that this was what he himself had found in a manuscript by the famous Hake well."

It is strange that none of the learned editors of the modern Reports have ever noticed these curious and important references. T. C. A.

[Three of William Hakewell's MSS. are noticed by Bernard, Catalogi Librorum Manuscriptorum Angliæ et Hiberniæ, 1697, fol. tom. ii. pt. i. No. 1945. "A Dissertation of the Nature and Custom of Aurum Reginæ." No. 4231. "A Dispute between the Viscounts and Barons, younger Sons and Baronets, with the Arguments on both sides." No. 5349. "The Orders of Passing Bills in the Lower House of Parliament, with the Proceedings thereupon." The Speeches of Hakewell are in Harl. MSS. 161, 1219, 1721, 2305, 6799, 6800.]

JOHN KNOX.-It has lately been asserted, that John Knox played at bowls on a Sunday with a friend. Is there any authority for this assertion? And if so, what is it?

K. I. X. [We do not remember any authoritative statement of John Knox having played at bowls on a Sunday; but looking to the manners and customs of Scotland in the earlier years of his life, we have no doubt that he may have occasionally enjoyed a game on the evening of that day. It is certain that Dr. John Aylmer, Bishop of London, after the prescribed duties of the Lord's day,

was wont to refresh himself either with conversation or

bowls. It was alleged against him by Martin Marpre

late, that he would sometimes lose his temper during the

game; for when following his bowl, he would cry Rub,

Rub, Rub, adding, when it went too far, "The Devil go with it;" and then, adds this sour puritan, he would

follow it himself! Strype, in his Life of Aylmer, p. 142,

193, ed. 1821, informs us that the Bishop learned this custom at Geneva *, where, though the people were very strict, it was never held unlawful, even on the Sabbath, after Divine service was over. The Bishop himself used to say on this head, that he never withdrew himself from service or sermon: that Christ was the best judge of the Sabbath, and He had said, that it was made for man, and not man for it. As to any hasty expressions that may

During Aylmer's exile in Germany, it is not improbable he may have met with Knox, who was then 1556-1558] pastor of a congregation at Geneva. Whilst residing at this place, Knox published his First Blast of the Trumpet against the Regiment of Women, 1558, 16mo, for which Queen Elizabeth never forgave him. Knox found an opponent in Aylmer, who shortly after published a reply, entitled An Harborowe for Faithfull and Trewe Subiects against the late blowne Blaste, concerning the Governemet of Wemen. Anno 1559.

have escaped him, he intended no evil, and that they ought to be looked on in the light of human frailties.] "LITURGY ON UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES," ETC. I am anxious to ascertain who compiled A Liturgy on the Universal Principles of Religion and Morality. Acts x. 34, 35 is quoted on the title-page, which bears date 1776. The book is really curious, and although containing prayers, hymns, psalms, &c., nobody could gather from it that such a person as our Lord Jesus Christ had ever appeared among B. H. C.


[This work is one of the singular productions of that speculative and visionary gentleman, David Williams, founder of the Literary Fund, who died on June 29, 1816, and was interred in St. Anne's church, Soho. In 1776 he opened a meeting-house in Margaret Street, Cavendish Square, for the celebration of public worship on the principles of natural religion, and published the above Liturgy for the use of his hearers, to whom he delivered a course of Lectures on the Principles and Duties of Religion and Morality, afterwards published in two vols. 4to. As his plan proposed to include in one act of public worship every class of men who acknowledged the being of a God, and the utility of public prayer and praise, it necessarily left unnoticed every other point of doctrine. This novelty, however, would not satisfy any of the various

sects; the numbers of his followers decreased, so that at length the temple of infidelity (as it was called) was finally closed, and the lecturer turned his attention to literary speculations and private tuition.]

JOHNSON'S " DICTIONARY."-Two numbers of an Edinburgh Review were published above a hundred years ago (1755), and Johnson's Dictionary therein reviewed by no less a critic than Adam Smith, who only four years later published his first work, the Theory of Moral Sentiments. Can we have any reference to these numbers, or, the Dictionary (I cannot remember the title), what I more desiderate, a very diverting satire on anonymous, but written by a Scotchman, Mr. Campbell, a purser in the Navy?


[Adam Smith's article on Johnson's Dictionary is the third in the Appendix of The Edinburgh Review, 1755, No. I. pp. 61-73. Archibald Campbell's malicious satire against Dr. Johnson is entitled Lexiphanes, a Dialogue imitated from Lucian, with a Dedication to Lord Lyttel ton. Lond. 1767, 12mo.]

MEZZOTINT.-There appears to be no work in which gives a full and complete description of English, as far as I have been able to discover, the art of engraving in mezzotint, with figures of the various burnishers, scrapers, &c. used. I shall be glad to be corrected if I am in error. goes thoroughly into the details of the art? one kindly refer me to any foreign work which

Can any

F. M. S.

[The following works are noticed by Watt: 1. Sculp

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