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is probably to be understood as showing the usual meaning of town in standard English. If we consider the local meaning, there is not the slightest reason why a town should consist of more than one house; just as when we read in Burns:
"Thro' a' the toun she trotted by him,
The glossary to Burns very properly says: "Toun, a hamlet, a farmhouse." More strictly, however, a toun means an enclosure, that which is defended by a hedge or enclosure: and hence, originally, a farmhouse with its belongings, i. e. the whole farm, as above; or whatever is enclosed within a town-wall. It is the Anglo-Saxon tún (German zaun, a hedge), which is connected with the verb týnan, to enclose or fasten; Old English tyne. The word vnteyned, i. e. untyned, unfastened, occurs as late as A.D. 1394: -
"That turneth vp two-folde, vnteyned opon trewthe." Pierce the Ploughman's Crede, 1. 516. WALTER W. SKEAT.
NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.
The Visions of William concerning Piers Plowman, together with Vita de Dowel, Dobet, et Dobest, secundum Wit et Resoun, by William Langlund (about 1362-1380, A.D.) Edited from numerous Manuscripts, with Prefaces, Notes, and a Glossary. By the Rev. Walter W. Skeat, M.A. &c. In Four Parts. Part I. (Printed for the Early English Text Society.) Manipulus Vocabulorum: A Rhyming Dictionary of the English Language, by Peter Levins (1570). Edited, with an Alphabetical Index, by Henry B. Wheatley. (Printed for the Early English Text Society.)
As German philologists have of late years opened their eyes to the value and importance of their Nibelungen Lied, so have English scholars and antiquaries recognised more fully the claims of The Vision of William concerning Piers Plowman to be considered among the most valuable illustrations of the political and religious ideas and the social condition of our forefathers which have been handed down to us. Such being the case, it was obvious that the attention of The Early English Text Society could not fail of being directed to the propriety of giving to students of our national literature a scholar-like edition of this important monument of our language and literature. The preparation of such an edition has been very judiciously entrusted to the Rev. Walter W. Skeat, a gentleman who has shown by the manner in which he has edited Lancelot of the Laik and The Romans of Partenay his thorough fitness for the task. The edition will occupy four volumes, the contents of which will be, Vol. I., the "Vernon" Text, or Text A; Vol. II., the "Crowley" Text, or Text B; Vol. III., the " Whitaker" Text, or Text C; Vol. IV., General Notes, and a complete Glossary to all three Texts. The fertile imagination of the author, says Mr. Skeat, in his valuable Introduction, induced him to re-write the poem twice over, so that what may fairly be called three editions of it still exist in manuscript. The Vernon MS. contains the first or earliest of these, and forms the first volume, which is now before us, and contains in addition the Introduction
by Mr. Skeat, in which he points out that Langland's writings, like those of Chaucer, are worth whole volumes the English mind in the fourteenth century, and shows of history in indicating the true temper and feelings of
how these authors illustrate each other, -Chaucer describing the rich, and Langland the poor, in their homely, ill-fed, hardworking condition. The book is one of the most interesting yet issued by the Society.
We must postpone our notice of Levins' Manipulatus ; but take this opportunity of calling the attention of our readers to two new proposals on the part of the Societyone is for reprinting the Publications for the years 1864, 1865, and 1866, as soon as sufficient subscribers' names are received; the second is for the publication of an Extra Series. Gentlemen desirous of supporting either or both these proposals should communicate at once with the Secretary.
St. Pauls. A Magazine edited by Anthony Trollope. With Illustrations by J. E. Millais, R.A. No. 1. (Virtue.)
If, referring to the appearance of a new literary periodical, one should quote the hackneyed "another and another still succeeds," the quotation would undoubtedly prove a prophecy; for who can doubt that a Magazine, of which the staple is to be the Serial Novel, will prosper in the hands of Mr. Trollope? His first Number gives assurance of it. Whether he may be wise in giving his venture a political character, time alone can show. But the political articles, and all the padding or pudding of the Number, are well written. Tinsley's Magazine, conducted by Edmund Yates. No. 3. (Tinsley Brothers.)
The third number is unquestionably equal to the first, which will satisfy the subscribers. Nor do we think they will object to the publishers' sensible arrangement of issuing their Magazine on the 15th instead of the 1st of each month.
Notices to Correspondents.
LA BOETIE. A Discourse of Voluntary Servitude, by Stephen de la Bostie, was translated into English in 1735. The name of the translator is not given.
MISS S. H. The Botanical and Horticultural Meeting, 8vo, 1834, is by Miss Steeie Perkins. A letter may probably be forwarded to that lady if addressed to Messrs. Crossley and Billington, Rugby, the publishers of her last work in 1858.
J. MANUEL. Six volumes of The Reliquary, 1860-1866, have been published; the work is still in progress.
Will Messrs. G. Prideaux and J. H. Dixon be kind enough to let us know their addresses? Letters for them are now lying in our office. ERRATUM. 3rd S. xii. p. 165, col. ii. line 13, for "Barbone" read "Barbosa."
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ARCHITECTURE AND ARCHEOLOGY.
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AN ATTEMPT to DISCRIMINATE the STYLE of ARCHITECTURE in ENGLAND, from the Conquest to the Reformation; with a Sketch of the Grecian and Roman Orders. By the late THOMAS RICKMAN. F.S.A. Sixth Edition, with considerable Additions, chiefly Historical, by JOHN HENRY PARKER, F.S. A. 8vo, with many Plates, and numerous Illustrations by O. Jewitt, cloth extra, gilt top, 21s.
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AN INQUIRY into the DIFFERENCE of
STYLE observable on ANCIENT GLASS PAINTING, especially in England, with Hints on Glass Painting. By the late CHARLES WINSTON. With Corrections and Additions by the Author, and a Series of his Letters describing Improved Methods of Manufacturing and Colouring Glass for Painted Windows. New Edition. [In the Press.
Oxford, and 377 Strand, London: JAMES PARKER & CO.
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THE CANONS, of the FIRST.
HE CANONS of the FIRST FOUR GENE
"We, Bishops of Christ's Holy Catholic Church, professing the faith of the primitive and undivided Church, as based on Scripture, defined by the first four General Councils (see I Eliz. c. 2. xxxvi.) and reaffirmed by the Fathers of the English Reformation," &c. (Vide the Resolution of the Archbishops and Bishops at the Pan-Anglican Conference held at Lambeth.)
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No. IV., for NOVEMBER, will be published on the 16th instant.
1. The Adventures of Dr. Brady. By W. II. Russell, LL.D. (With
Chap. XIII. My Trials begin.
XIV. The Flight.
2. Save me from my Friends.
3. By the Fire.
4. Back to Town. (With an Illustration.)
5. Aunt Anastatia on Heroes.
7. The Disadvantages of Convalescence.
8. Bantam's Bequest.
10. The Rock Ahead. By Edmund Yates. (With an Illustration.) Book I. Chap. VI. Lloyd's Luck.
VII. The Linnet's Nest.
11. Ladies Backs and Hunters.
12. The Detrimental.
13. The Hon. Alice Brand's Correspondence. No. IV.
14. Paris Fashions. (With Coloured Plate and several Illustra tions.)
15. The Mariage de Convenance.
London: TINSLEY BROTHERS, 18, Catherine Street, Strand.
Just published, in 8vo, price 18s. cloth, ISTORY of ISRAEL to the DEATH of MOSES. By HEINRICH EWALD, Professor of the University of Göttingen. Translated from the German. Edited, with a Preface, by RUSSELL MARTINEAU, M.A.. Professor of Hebrew in Manchester New College, London.. London: LONGMANS, GREEN, and CO., Paternoster Row. The Realities of Travel in Abyssinia.
Just now we know very little of Abyssinia, and therefore a dull book, PROVIDED IT CONTAINS TRUSTWORTHY FACTS concerning that region, would be read with eagerness.-THE TIMES.
This Day, price 7s. 6d. 400 pages, cloth neat,
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"I know," said Theodore to M. Legean, "the tactics of European governments. when they wish to take possession of an Eastern territory. They first of all send missionaries, then consuls to strengthen the missionaries, and finally battalions to back up the consuls. I am Dot a Rajah of Hindustan to be bamboozled in that manner. I prefer to deal with the battalions first."
London: JOHN CAMDEN HOTTEN, 74 and 75 Piccadilly.
"Mr. Secretan is a pains-taking writer of practical theology. Called to minister to an intelligent middle-class London congregation, he has to avoid the temptation to appear abstrusely intellectual, a great error with many London preachers, and at the same time to rise above the strictly plain sermon required by an unlettered flock in the country. He has hit the mean with complete success, and produced a volume which will be readily bought by those who are in search of sermons for family reading. Out of twenty-one discourses it is almost impossible to give an extract which would show the quality of the rest, but while we commend them as a whole, we desire to mention with especial respect one on the Two Records of Creation,' in which the vexata quaestio of Geology and Genesis' is tated with great perspicuity and faithfulness; another on Home Region,' in which the duty of the Christian to labour for the salvation of his relatives and friends is strongly enforced, and one on the Latin Service in the Romish Church,' which though an argumentative sermon on a point of controversy, is perfectly free from a controversial spirit, and treats the subject with great fairness and ability."-Literary Churchman.
"This volume bears evidence of no small ability to recommend it to our readers. It is characterised by a liberality and breadth of thought which might be copied with advantage by many of the author's brethren, while the language is nervous, racy Saxon. In Mr. Secretan's sermons there are genuine touches of feeling and pathos which are impressive and affecting;-notably in those on the Woman taken in Adultery,' and on Youth and Age.' On the whole, in the light of a contribution to sterling English literature, Mr. Secretan's sermons are worthy of our commendation."- Globe.
"Mr. Secretan is no undistinguished man: he attained a considerable position at Oxford, and he is well known in Westminster-where he has worked for many years - no less as an indefatigable and self-denying clergyman than as an effective preacher. These sermons are extremely plain-simple and pre-eminently practical intelligible to the poorest, while there runs through them a poetical spirit and many touches of the highest pathos which must attract intellectual minds."- Weekly Mail.
"Practical subjects, treated in an earnest and sensible manner, give Mr. C. F. Secretan's Sermons preached in Westminster a higher value than such volumes in general possess. It deserves success."-Guardian. They are earnest, thoughtful, and practical of moderate length and well adapted for families."-English Churchman.
London: BELL & DALDY, 186, Fleet Street, E. C.
HRONICLES OF THE ANCIENT BRITISH Becond Edition. Post 8vo. Price 5s, cloth.
"The study of our early ecclesiastical history has by some been considered one of great labour; but a little work, entitled Chronicles of the Ancient British Church,' has so collected the material from the many and various sources, and has so judiciously classified and condensed the records, that there is no longer this plea. We recommend the work not only to every student, but to every churchman who feels an interest in the early history of his church."- Literary Churchman, June 16, 1855.
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THE WORTHIES OF SUSSEX: Biographical Sketches of the most eminent Natives or Inhabitants of the County, from the Earliest Period to the Present Time. With Notices illustrative of Sussex History and Antiquities.
By M. A. LOWER, M.A., F.S.A.
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RARITIES. MR. THOMA BEET, of 15, Conduit Street, Bond Street, has for Sale the Rare and Precious First Edition of SHAKESPEARE'S PLAYS, FOLIO, 1623; also, the Second Impression, Folio, 1632, and the Fourth Edition, Folio, 1685.
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