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891,898-Process of Making Low-Carbon Metals or Alloys. Frederick M. Becket, June 30, 1908.
The process consists in producing under electric furnace conditions a metallic product low in carbon and high in silicon, and then oxidizing part or all of the silicon.
891,982-Electrolytic Process for the Production of Metallic Dark Coatings Upon Metals. Alexander Classen, June 30, 1908.
The process consists in producing a metallic deposit of dark color, wherein after the deposit having the bright metallic luster has been produced, the tension of the current is considerably reduced.
891,987-Vulvanizing and Coloring Wood. William A. Hall, June 30, 1908.
The process consists in boiling the wood in a closed receptacle in an alkaline solution comprising a mixture of sodium and ammonium hydroxides. 892,211-Process of Producing Low-Carbon Alloys. Frederick M. Becket, June 30, 1908.
The process consists in smelting a charge containing an ore of a refractory metal and a reducing agent between electrodes of iron, cooling said electrodes, and regulating the consumption of the electrodes and the composition of the product by controlling the effect at the working ends of the electrodes.
892,178 Process of Producing Ammonium Chloride. Emil Naumann, June 30, 1908. The process consists in producing chloride of ammonium or sal ammoniac from sulphate of ammonium and chloride of sodium in hot aqueous solution by producing a solution containing both salts of which the chloride of sodium is in excess of the molecular proportion necessary for the decomposition of the sulphate of ammonium and selecting such concentration that the finally obtained hot reactive solution contains less of the components of chloride of ammonium than corresponds to a hot saturated reactive solution of the same.
892,241-Method of Electrically Detecting Dangerous Gases and Apparatus Therefor. Heinrich Freise, June 30, 1908.
The method consists in electrically detecting dangerous gases by passing the dangerous gas across rays of light projected from a source of light to a selenium cell inserted in a primary circuit for darkening the selenium cell and reducing the strength of the current circulating in the primary circuit, whereby electromagnetic devices are caused to close a secondary circuit for actuating warning or other devices.
892,269-Process for Improving the Physical Properties of Metals and their Alloys. David Lamon, June 30, 1908.
The process consists in subjecting metals while hot to the action of boric acid and a sulphate of aluminum and maintaining them at a raised temperature while being treated.
892,302-Explosive. Winfield S. Pierce, June 30, 1908.
The explosive comprises an alkaline chlorate and a carbo-hydrate, such as specified, caramel, shellac, and constituents of alkanet.
892,342-Mineral Fertilizer. John A. Wendel, June 30, 1908.
The fertilizer consists of burned and comminuted rock, dolomite, phosphorite, sodium sulphate exsiccated, calcium sulphate, ferrous sulphate, magnesium sulphate, calcium carbonate, silicic acid or silicious earth, and kainit. 892,378 Method of Treating Crude Petroleum. Dan Martini, June 30, 1908.
The process is for the production of an explosive mixture for use in internal combustion engines, and consists in ionizing petroleum in the form of mist, spray, or vapor by mixing it with an ionized gas containing oxygen.
Index to Articles on Applied Chemistry.
JAMES H. DE LONG, B. S.,
A. B. AUBERT
Lafayette College University of Maine
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The publishers would like to call attention to several things in connection with this index. First of these is the fact that it is desired to be a complete catalogue of all the important articles upon analytical and applied chemistry appearing in the current issues of the more important scientific and trade journals of this country, England, France and Germany.
We are in position to secure for our subscribers at reasonable rates translations of any articles appearing in French or German journals. When a sufficient number of our readers notify us that such is their wish, however, we will have the desired article translated and published in THE CHEMICAL ENGINEER.
As to the best way of making use of the index we have this to suggest: The index is not only intended to keep our readers posted on what is appearing in the other journals, but also to serve as a permanent record of the literature of applied chemistry. To the latter end it is better that all the articles on one subject be grouped under that head rather than scattered throughout the several monthly indexes. This can be done in several ways. It will be noticed that the pages are backed by advertisements; they may, therefore, be cut out of the magazine without mutilating other contents, cut apart and each item pasted on a separate card. These cards can then be arranged between proper guide cards in a tray or a drawer cabinet. While this would require a little time each month to cut out the items and paste them on cards or in a scrap book, such an arrangement of all correlated matter under one head would save much time ultimately in looking over all the numbers for articles on a particular subject. This would also admit of a rearrangement of the items to suit the ideas and needs of each individual.
Below is a list of the journals regularly read and indexed for THE CHEMICAL ENGINEER each month. For the convenience of our readers, after each of the American journals are given its publishers, their address and the price of a single copy. In giving the reference to the volume, number and page of a journal, the volume is printed in Roman numerals, the number in bold face and the page in ordinary face Arabic numerals.
JOURNALS REGULARLY INDEXED.
American Chemical Journal, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Md.
Liquids are practically always conveyed through pipes or in flumes and channels, being made to flow therein by means of a head or else the pressure of a pump or some form of air-lift. The conveying of liquids is a branch of "hydraulics" and in the space of the present article we can do nothing more than touch the subject.
Where liquids are conveyed from a higher to a lower level, they are caused to flow through the pipe by means of what is known as a "head," or in other words, the weight of liquid behind them, which exerts a pressure upon them and moves them forward. When a given liquid is to be conveyed from one part of the plant to another part at a lower level the problem is merely one of selecting a pipe of the proper size and of a material which is not attacked by the liquid to be conveyed. When the problem is to convey a liquid from a lower to a higher level, it is necessary not only to consider the size and material of the pipe but also the means of lifting it, or of supplying the pressure to force it through the pipes. For this latter purpose are provided, (1) pumps of a variety of styles and made of iron, alloys, earthenware, hard rubber, etc.; (2) air-lifts worked by compressors: (3) pulsometers, and (4), for water only, hydraulic rams.
Taking up first the simpler problem of a liquid to be conveyed from the higher part of a plant to another lower down, the question of the material of which the pipe is made must first be considered. Pipes are made of a large number of materials. Water pipes are usually made in the smaller sizes of wrought iron, sometimes galvanized, and in the larger sizes of cast iron. Pipes are also made of lead, copper and tin and many alloys. Hard rubber pipes may be obtained in sizes ranging from 2 to 4 inches. Earthenware pipes are used quite extensively and often make very serviceable waste pipes. They are unsuited to the conveying of liquids under high pressure. Cement pipes are also now made and these are. better for many purposes than the salt glazed tile pipe. A vitrified tile pipe is much used in acid
1 Other articles of this series will be found in The Chemical Engineer, Jan., Feb..
factories and some of those designed for this purpose are practically acid proof. The objection to such ware is of course its fragility and hence the liability of its being broken under the hard usage most appliances about an industrial plant have to stand. They also do not withstand pressure very well, about 20 pounds to the square inch being considered the limit of good practice.
Wooden pipe is also manufactured. The wood itself is usually some soft wood, such as cypress or redwood, and the pipe consists of staves bound with steel bands and then coated with asphalt, etc., to protect the bands. These pipes are used extensively for beer, vinegar and the organic acids and have even been used for weak solutions of the mineral acids. At the plant of the Genesee Fruit Co. wooden pipe is used to convey vinegar, being laid both above and below ground. After a trial of eight years these pipes proved perfectly satisfactory. Figure 1 shows a section of wooden pipe.
a= Protective Coating; b= Steel band, wound solid for high pressure; c= Ends of tenon and shoulder, showing grooves and beads; d= Steel band for making water-tight joint in high pressure pipe.
Valves and fittings of wood can be obtained, or cast iron ones may be used and the pipe is made in stock sizes of from 2 to 48 inches.
Lead pipe is extensively used in the chemical industries and for this purpose it is made of what is known as "chemical lead." Lead pipe is resistant to dilute sulphuric acid (under 1.70 sp. gr.) and also to salt water. It is, however, of low strength and very easily damaged by knocks from the outside. It is also liable to flatten or collapse when exposed to heat either empty or under diminished pressure (as in the case of a syphon or a discharge pipe controlled by a valve above). In the latter case the pipe may be collapsed by the suction of the fluid in it.
A lead lined iron pipe is now made in sizes from 2 to 10 inches by the Lead Lined Iron Pipe Co., Wakefield, Mass., which combines the strength
of iron pipe with the acid resisting qualities of lead. In this pipe the inside is first coated with tin and the lead is then melted and poured in around a mandrel. The tin serves as a solder to unite the iron and the lead. These pipes are made in the larger sizes with flanged ends, while the smaller sizes are threaded. In the former the lead is recessed into the flanges to form a lead gasket, while with the latter head lined threaded couplings can be obtained. Figure 2 shows a section of lead lined pipe and also some of the fittings including a stop-cock and valve. The latter to be used with the flanged pipe.
Tin pipes are not much used in the purely chemical industries but are extensively employed in breweries. They are also used for conveying pure distilled water and water containing carbon dioxide, vinegar and wine. Tin pipe is much harder than lead pipe. Pure tin is expensive so that for most purposes a tin lined iron pipe is used.
Wrought iron pipes are used chiefly for water supply and for this pur
Fig. 2-Lead Lined Pipe Valve, Stop-Cock and Tee. pose they are sometimes galvanized to aid them in resisting corrosion. Cast iron pipes are used for water supply in sizes from 4 inches inside diameter up. Cast iron pipes are also used for strong acids. Either cast or wrought iron pipes may be used for sulphuric acid of 1.70 sp. qr. and over. Copper and brass tubes are also used to some extent in chemical plants.
Wrought iron pipes are usually joined together by means of screw couplings. Lead and tin lined iron pipes are also joined this way. Cast iron pipes when used for water are usually of the bell and spigot type, in which the bell of one length fits over the spigot end of the other. The joint is made tight by means of an oakum packing called the "gasket" and lead is poured in to complete the joint. Cast iron pipes to be used for acids, etc., should be provided with flanged ends. One of the most important considerations in this connection is the material used for the gasket or packing between the surfaces of the flanges. If possible the flanges should be machined so as to fit closely together. Suitable packing can then be made with