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the particular needs of the service and the view of the court that an executive officer has a right to a limited amount of personal assistance, even in cases where ability to do the work might be determined by competition. Examinations fail miserably of their purpose if they result in putting unworthy or unqualified men into office, or indeed if they fail to put within reach of appointing officers the men best fitted for the service required. We must not forget that we have a constitutional declaration of the merit principle as applied to all civil offices, and a constitutional statement of the methods to be followed in attaining it. Our constitution declares: "Appointments and promotions in the civil service * shall be made according to merit and fitness." This is a broad statement. But then follows the method. Merit and fitness are "to be ascertained, as far as practicable, by examinations, which, so far as practicable, shall be competitive." Here is the authority for the civil service law; the basis for our present system of examination; and the restrictions with reference to exempting positions from competition when the same is at all practicable. The civil service law and rules are not yet perfect. Many problems confront us from day to day which the law does not solve. Difficulties arise from time to time the satisfactory solution of which will never be reached until there is introduced into the law provisions which will eliminate them on the basis of personal experience. I trust as time goes on we will help to make the civil service law and rules stronger and better, and that their requirements will be generally recognized with the principle of efficiency they aim to establish.

If the merit system fails it will not be because we have had too much of it but because we have not had enough. If it promotes efficiency and economy and holds the balance truly among all political factions and parties, so that none of them can use the

patronage either openly or under a disguise, it will succeed, and in this we all may have a part. If it cannot do these things thoroughly and well, it will fail and some day a combination of parties will, with some show of reason, try to secure its repeal.

The object of the civil service law is not to have offices recruited simply through men and women who have been selected by examination. The object is to have those who are qualified for their work; to have them tested by means which will show their qualifications; by examinations which relate to the particular subjects with which they have to deal; by examinations which will show that in their experience, intelligence and education they know something about the matters which they will be called upon officially to transact. It is a regrettable thing that we have this system in so few states. The people of this country are absolutely tired of having public offices and public business used as a means for personal reward or making a great camp so that one party may fight another on election day. I believe they are heartily sick of such a situation. Some of our good friends, very eminent and important in party councils, are beginning to appreciate the benefits of the merit system. The people of this country realize that in state and nation we have most difficult problems of business. They believe in certain principles of government, but they are not in agreement with regard to particular policies, and they divide on party lines, but when it comes to having the business of this country in nation and in State well done they are nearly a unit. Now what we want to do is to establish just methods of administration and so secure an illustration of the benefits of a proper method of selecting subordinates. In that way we may hope to have a general adoption of those measures which were conceived with patriotic desire to promote the efficient transaction of public business.

CHAUTAUQUA GRAPES A CENTURY OLD

First of the fruit planted on the Lake Erie hillside by a New
Englander in 1818-Now one of the great grape sections of the world

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BY ASSEMBLYMAN JOSEPH A. McGINNIES

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HE growing of grapes is one of the oldest industries known

to man.

The delicious and refreshing flavor of the fruit has tickled the palates of the people of the earliest ages recorded in history. I have been asked to give a brief description of this industry in Chautauqua county; an industry that from a small beginning has grown to be the principal one of the county and has placed it in the front rank among the counties of this country so far as the value of its products is concerned.

Joseph A. McGinnies

The writer claims no special literary ability, but will attempt to give an account of the development of the industry in plain and homely language, hoping that it will be of some interest to the many readers of STATE SERVICE.

In the extreme western part of the State of New York, forming the northern boundary of Chautauqua county, is a long, narrow valley bounded on the north by Lake Erie and on the south by the watershed that divides the waters that flow into Lake Erie and those that flow into the tributaries of the Mississippi.

This watershed consists of a belt of grasscovered hills, rising to an altitude of about 1,200 feet above the level of Lake Erie, equivalent to about 1,800 feet above the sea level. The more precipitous face of this watershed is presented toward Lake Erie. Here the hills rise steeply and extend sub

stantially parallel to the shore of the lake, and at a distance varying from three to six miles. From the foot of these hills northward is an undulating region, gradually descending as it extends toward the lake, where it terminates in a bluff of the average height of 20 feet above its waters. The valley thus formed is about 40 miles long and extends entirely across the county.

This valley is peculiarly adapted to the growing of fruit, especially the grape; more grapes are grown here than in any other one section of the United States, and it is known far and wide as the Chautauqua Grape Belt, the grapes grown in this section having a nation-wide reputation. From the border of the lake practically the entire length of the belt, for a distance of about one and onehalf miles from the lake, the soil is clay and sandy loam; then follows a belt of gravel soil about one mile wide; and at the foot of the hills is a belt of clay shale, also about one mile in width. But, as a matter of fact, there seems to be no peculiarity of soil that materially differs from that of other sections of the country that would account for the peculiar and extra fine flavor and quality of the grapes grown in this section. Other causes assigned are that the peculiar topography of this region has its effect upon the climate; the lake along the northern border preventing late frosts in spring and early frosts in the fall; the nearness of the hills on the south to the lake and their altitude at this point has a marked influence, for as the altitude becomes less to the east or west, and their distance from the lake becomes greater, the peculiarity of the section for the culture of fine-flavored grapes diminishes and frosts

A sample of Chautauqua grapes are more imminent. The Chautauqua belt is free from heavy dews and the topography has, of course, more or less of an influence upon atmospheric currents, so that mildew and black rot, which is the terror of many grape-growing sections, does not prevail in this section. Whatever the reason, however, whether soil, climate or location, the fact remains that the vineyards of Chautauqua county, as far as fine-flavored fruit is concerned, can well challenge the world.

One of the earliest settlers of Chautauqua county was Deacon Elijah Fay, who came from Southborough, Mass., in the year 1811 and located at what is now known as the village of Brocton. The life of a pioneer was not an easy one, and Deacon Fay doubtless longed for and missed many of the comforts he had left behind in his old home in Massachusetts. Among other things, the loss of which he regretted, was perhaps the native grape vines that flourished in great profusion in New England; and he decided to try the experiment of transplanting some of them into what was then a western wilderness. In the year 1818 he procured a few vines of this native variety and planted them about his cabin, where they took root and grew with a vigor that indicated the adaptability of the soil of this section to vine culture. These, without a doubt, were the first grape vines planted in Chautauqua

county, and for that matter, in western New York, and their planting was the beginning of an industry that has come to be one of the important industries of this section. As stated, these vines grew luxuriantly, but the fruit, while of good size, was inferior in quality; but Deacon Fay was not discouraged, as he believed that the soil and climate were adapted to grape-growing, if the right variety could be secured. So in 1822 he experimented again with a few roots of several cultivated varieties; but these varieties made but a feeble growth, and it was evident that they were of too tender a quality to to stand the climate. In 1824, however, Deacon Fay tried his third experiment and purchased of William R. Prince, of Flushing, L. I., roots of the Catawba and Isabella varieties, which he planted in a specially prepared plot of ground; and the vines were trained on a wooden trellis erected for that purpose; and this was the first vineyard established in western New York. Soil and climate proved well adapted to these two varieties, the vines grew rapidly, and in due time produced a fine-flavored fruit, which fully ripened in the autumn sunshine and proved conclusively that grapes could be grown in this section of the country.

For a number of years following the planting of this little vineyard Mr. Fay made no effort to place the product on the market. The country at that time was little more than a wilderness; transportation was by means of ox teams, over rough forest trails, and was extremely difficult, if not dangerous, and the markets were at too great a distance to be profitable. Rapid growth of the population of western New York, however, finally convinced him that a profit could be made from the sale of grapes, and somewhere along in the forties a few grapes were shipped in baskets to Buffalo by way of steamer from Dunkirk. These grapes, when exposed for sale in the Buffalo market, were regarded as curiosities and people asked all sorts of

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questions in regard to them; but the people soon became acquainted with the uses of the grapes, and they sold for prices that were very satisfactory. The success of Mr. Fay encouraged some of his neighbors to have faith in the future of the grape industry, and its culture was commenced on a small scale by quite a number, so that in a few years grapes were quite common in this section, the product being used mostly for winemaking.

The varieties generally cultivated had been principally the Catawba and Isabella, with a few other varieties; but during the fifties W. S. Bull, of Concord, Mass., introduced the Concord variety. This grape received a prize awarded by Horace Greeley, who declared it was "the grape for the million." This prophecy has proven to be a fact, and the Concord grape at the present time is almost entirely cultivated. As stated the grapes that were produced along in the fifties and sixties were used largely for winemaking, some of the wine companies paying ridiculously high prices, and those who were fortunate enough to be engaged in the growing and sale of grapes made large profits; but the prices paid were beyond all reason and caused the failure of several of the com

holding about twenty pounds, and were shipped by freight to various cities of the country, where they sold at a fair profit; but the freight charges and cost of handling on small shipments were high, and it was evident that, to make the industry profitable, the shipments must be of greater magnitude. The growers reasoned that grapes shipped in carloads could be handled to better advantage than in smaller quantities, and in the fall of 1877 the first carload of grapes ever sent from the Chautauqua grape belt was loaded and shipped to Philadelphia, Pa. The following year there were eight carloads shipped, and from that time on the output has steadily increased until over 8,000 carloads have been shipped from the grape belt in a year.

Shippers and growers multiplied as the demand for the fruit increased in the markets of the country. Vineyards were planted the entire length and breadth of the belt. It is estimated that at the present time there are between 40,000 and 50,000 acres of bearing vineyards. The grapes are shipped to all the large markets of the country, going as far west as Spokane and Seattle, Wash., and south as far as New Orleans, La., and El Paso, Tex. Some idea of the extent of the

panies engaged in the making of wine. This industry can be gained from the fact that tended to demoralize the grape-growing industry, but the growers had too much at stake to abandon the hundreds of acres that had been set to vineyards, so they began to look about them and see if a market could not be found beyond the confines of the grape belt. They believed that grapes were good for other purposes besides wine-making and that, if the people could be educated to appreciate their many good qualities, the demand would soon equal the supply.

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The subsequent history of the industry has shown that these early growers reasoned correctly, and again the effort was made to introduce the fruit to the public. These first shipments were made in large baskets,

Filling the grape baskets from the vines

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Hauling the grapes to the railroad station the normal average crop is about 6,000 carloads. This would mean approximately 18,000,000 baskets of table grapes, and at present prices amounts to between $3,000,000 and $4,000,000 annually.

Mention has been made of the fact that in the early history of the industry most of the grapes grown were manufactured into wine, and that on account of the excessively high prices paid by some of the wine companies, they were forced into bankruptcy. At no time, however, was the manufacture of wine discontinued, and the business of winemaking was reorganized and re-established on a more conservative and sound business basis; and at the present time quite an amount of grapes are manufactured into wine, owing to a demand for a young claret wine for present use, the total yearly production being about 2,000,000 gallons.

and organized the Welch Grape Juice company, which erected large cellars at Westfield, N. Y., for the manufacture of unfermented grape juice. Since that time their cellars at Westfield have been greatly enlarged, and they also own and operate a large plant at North East, just across the New York and Pennsylvania State line. While the Welch Grape Juice company were the pioneers in this industry and are the largest manufacturers in the belt, there are a number of others engaged in this industry, the total production last season being estimated at about three million gallons.

Another and more important industry, however, which has sprung up and which bids fair to do more for the grape industry than any other, is the manufacture of unfermented grape juice. This is entirely separate and distinct from wine-making, and is said to have originated in Vineland, N. J., in 1869, in which year Doctor Welch put up two dozen bottles of unfermented grape juice for communion use. From this small beginning he afterwards established quite a considerable business in the manufacture and sale of grape juice at Vineland, but finally in 1897 he came to the Chautauqua grape belt

Shipments of grapes to market are made in baskets holding approximately 3, 5 and 20 pounds, the 3- and 5-pound size being packed with selected fruit for table use, and the 20-pound size with unselected, for wine purposes and for the making of jelly and preserves. Grapes intended for the grape juice factories are picked into special trays or crates furnished by the factories. The crop is marketed by shippers who buy direct from the growers and by co-operative shipping associations. One of these, the Chautauqua and Erie Grape Company, has been organized for twenty-five years, is probably the largest co-operative shipping association in the State, and has proved both profitable and satisfactory to its members.

The care and culture of the grape is pleasant and interesting labor during the entire year, but the busiest and most inter

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