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The party has been legalized; the machine has been placed in undisputed possession of the party; the sanction of the law has been placed upon the machine's candidates.

The continued use for twenty-five years of the official ballot has probably insured its continuance, but the reformer must become reconciled to the rule of the machine. Through his efforts the machine's supremacy has been firmly established, and as a consequence the government is today conducted by the political machine.

It has long been recognized that any representative government is a party government, and that parties are necessary to the conduct of the government. Thus the result of it all is, that political activity must be directed through the machine, either from the inside by directing its policy, or by building a new machine, and defeating the old at a primary contest. This means giving to the subject the same attention now devoted to it by the successful leader or boss-leader if you are allied with the machine; boss, if opposed to it.

The machine cannot be defeated by hurling epithets at the men composing the machine, nor by indiscriminate charges of corruption or selfish and mercenary motives made against the successful politicians. In New York for fifteen years the official primary has been in operation, and every political leader now in control of an organization has won its leadership and control by a vote of the enrolled electors of his party. The successful contest of the opposition candidate for district attorney in the primaries in Kings county, and the opposition candidates for district attorney and congressmen, respectively, in the Republican primaries in Westchester county, in 1916, and the successful contest of William M. Bennett for the mayoralty nomination in the Republican primaries in New York city in 1917, demonstrate that it is possible for the enrolled members of the party to control the election, and

that when the machine has lost the confidence of the party, it can be defeated.

No form of human activity affords more genuine enjoyment than modern politics; it is the most fascinating game ever played. But the man who is unwilling to devote his time and energy to constructing a machine, or who is temperamentally incapable of working with the machine, must abstain from participating in party politics, beyond exercising his right of franchise. And if such a man does not enroll and vote at the primary and at the general election he is not a good citizen, and has no right to complain because of the results. The way is open to every citizen to voice his sentiments and exercise his influence in public affairs, but he must do it through the means provided. "He must play the game according to the rules." So long as the official ballot is in use, he must voice those sentiments and exercise his influence, if he hopes to produce any effect, through and by and with the machine.

In order to avoid the evils of the viva voce voting the ballot was adopted. But this did not secure the secrecy of the franchise sought. Then came the official ballot which necessitated the recognition of political parties; and this in time required their regulation by statute. The freedom of the elector is destroyed by the limitations of the official ballot. Then followed the official primary with its official ballot and attendant limitations. Again new evils confronted the reformer, and the direct primary was adopted. Through it all the machine not only has survived, but has been legalized and strengthened.

This is the result of the official ballot.

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NEW YORK'S DRIVE AGAINST ILLITERACY

Epoch-making laws passed by the last legislature for the Ameri

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Growing out of the war emergency needs for Americanization through education and the demand for a "United America behind the firing line," a program has been adopted and partially enacted into legislation, approved by Governor Charles S. Whitman, himself an ardent advocate of unadulterated Americanism, and through his advocacy adequate provision has been made for training teachers and promoting the supervision of the work. By this provision and legislation, New York State was the first State to enter upon a broad and comprehensive program of immigrant education.

Briefly, this State policy of immigrant education seeks to carry out the work in co-operation with the United States bureau of education, which has announced a policy through the council of national defense and the State defense council. The latter has named the education department to be its arm for these Americanization activities.

This program seeks to enlarge, extend and stimulate the public school facilities, arouse the community spirit behind the war, interpret war measures to aliens, instil and promote a better attitude toward American ideals and ideas, mobilize the various Americanization agencies as represented in women's organizations, fraternal bodies, foreign societies and press, and altogether seek a" United America ".

A glance at the following statistics and data will indicate that New York has a sizable problem in immigrant education.

New York city has a total foreign-born population of 2,748,011, an increase of 44.4 per cent over that of 1900. The three nationalities most numerous are Russian, Italian and German.

Foreign-born males of voting age, 1,221,013; unnaturalized, 457,259. Only 41.1 per cent are naturalized, while ten years before 58 per cent were naturalized.

Foreign-born whites 10 years of age and over, 2,634,578; unable to speak English, 579,102; illiterates, 362,056. Of the 131,541 who were attending school, only 9,602 were over 21 years of age. In one city school district where 50 per cent of the population were foreign-born not one pupil was 21 years of age.

Amendments to the State education law passed in 1918 requires the board of each city to maintain free night schools. In all cities the State requires all persons between 16 and 21 years of age, who do not speak English, to attend schools until they have "such ability to speak, read and write the English language as is required for the

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completion of the fifth grade for the city or school district in which he resides." There is no specific grant for night schools, but aid is apportioned on the basis of the number of teachers and the number of days they teach. One hundred dollars is allowed for each 180 days or more taught, and a night school is regarded as half a day. A State supervisor A State supervisor of immigrant education has recently been appointed, and training institutes for teachers are being conducted in the largest cities and normal schools. Secretary Franklin K. Lane has asked Congress for federal aid to the States for immigrant education.

In 1910 New York had 1,927,703 foreignborn, of whom 421,951 were unable to speak English; but in 1914 only 36,923 attended evening schools; Buffalo had 118,444 foreignborn, with 30,826 unable to speak English, but only 2,622 in the evening schools; Rochester had 58,993 foreign-born, with 11,025 unable to speak English, but only 2,320 in the evening schools. In 1914 there were no public evening schools whatsoever in 107 urban communities with more than 2,500 inhabitants; 71 of these communities. had more than 1,000 foreign-born and 3 of them had more than 4,000 foreign-born.

Reliable data of the proportion of aliens in the industries of the State is not available. An analysis shows, however, that 82.1 per cent of the persons engaged in the State's manufacturing industries in 1914 were wageearners. The largest alien employing industries according to man-power are clothing, with 173,256 wage-earners; foundries and machine shops with 40,176 wage-earners; furniture with 21,479 wage-earners; and canners with 6,439 wage-earners. Quarries, oil and gas, 11,308 wage-earners in 1909. 12 per cent of the farmers or 27,029 were foreign-born in 1910.

There are 291,598 foreign-born women in New York State unable to speak English, 224,982 in New York city; 198,679 foreignborn women in New York State absolutely

illiterate in any language, 147,857 in New York City. A proposed Constitutional Amendment, already passed by the Assembly of 1917, and 1918 establishes a literacy test for voting in 1920. Reaching the foreignborn woman in the home constitutes a special problem. Many women are taking the places of men in industry, and are thus subject to the industrial laws.

Alien men between 21 and 31 years of age registered for draft, 264,709. On all public works preference has to be given to citizens. The Workman's Compensation Law allows to aliens only one-half the sum total installments when these are commuted to a lump sum. All aliens are excluded from the benefits of the Mother's Pension Law.

By a stroke of his pen on May 1st, Governor Whitman thus completed the first step in setting in motion the vast educational machinery of the commonwealth, which will go far toward making "English the language of New York State."

In the approval of the three bills affecting this immigrant education and the pending joint resolution making a literacy test for citizens applicable in 1920, subject, of course, to referendum vote in November 1919 New York has adopted a policy of immigrant education which includes

(a) Training of teachers to do this special type of work.

(b) The opening of night schools in cities, and towns, many of which have heretofore remained closed even in foreign communities.

(c) The requirement of all non-English-speaking minors above 16 to learn the common language.

This policy having been enacted into law is the most significant and forward step toward Americanization which any State has yet taken, being in line with a Federal program recently announced by Secretary Franklin K. Lane, of the interior department, in connection with the bureau of education.

This policy is the result of vital interest in the problem on the part of the State

department, school superintendents, manufacturers, labor leaders, and the immigrants themselves, because they so frequently find that they are out of the range of "better things" and "don't know what it's all about." It is also the result of war emergency, the effort of a state to correct its past neglects of the immigrant, a condition in which the immigrant was left to shift for himself. Thus the "melting pot " failed to work.

We have here outlined the program of the State for the Americanization of the foreignborn "stranger within our gates"-Americanization through education. It remains for us to say that every loyal and patriotic American of native birth, has a job to do in this connection. The above attitude, too often expressed by the alien as a direct result of this neglect, must be changed if we are ever to have him "of us" instead of "with us." with us."

The native American needs to be Americanized by a friendly attitude. We must do what we can to save him from exploitation, to interpret to him or her, the better part of America, the real America. Thus we shall be making of many peoples one nation, loyal and united.

Secretary Franklin K. Lane, in speaking to the recent Americanization conference in announcing his program, said this beautifully in the following words:

"What is it to be loyal to America? We are to preach Americanism. You are the prophets of a new day. You are the missionaries who are to go forth. What is the story of America? Is it told in the flag? The flag is but a symbol. It represents hopes and achievements and longings and fears, but the flag is not America. The story of America is not told by telling the story of the landing of the Pilgrim fathers,

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or by telling the story of the advance of the immigrant across the continent in conquering this country. It is not told by telling the story of the battles of Yorktown or Gettysburg or Santiago or Manila. It is not told by telling of our great inventions and our great inventors, Whitney and Edison. It is not told by outlining the philosophy of William James or Emerson. It is not told

by the poetry of Poe, Longfellow and Lowell. All these are expressions of the American spirit of adventure, of purposeful searching after the thing that is better. But America is an aspiration. America is a spirit. America is something mystical which lives in the heavens. It is the constant and continuous searching of the human heart for the thing that is better."

BIG MEN TO BE AT REPUBLICAN MEETING Roosevelt, Taft, Root and other national characters to address Saratoga convention July 18-19- Rival candidates for governor to be there

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EPUBLI- H. Hays, chairman of the Republican national committee.

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CANS of the State will hold an unofficial convention at Saratoga Springs, July 18-19. The call was issued by George A. Glynn, chairman of the State committee, and declares that at this gathering only the principles and purposes of the party for the coming campaign will be discussed and declared. There will be no recommendations as to candidates for State offices but, as the great issue within the party is on the question of policies and principles to be adopted, the convention is certain to be one of the most interesting in recent years.

Elihu Root

Republicans of prominence will address the unofficial convention. Among these will be Theodore Roosevelt, former president of the United States; William H. Taft, also former president of the United States; Elihu Root, former United States senator and secretary of State under President Roosevelt; James W. Wadsworth, Jr., and William M. Calder, United States senators; and Will

Theodore Roosevelt, former president of the United States, in his letter of acceptance to State chairman George A. Glynn, wrote that he would speak on national issues from a patriotic standpoint and that he took it for granted that he and Mr. Taft and Mr. Root would speak before the reports on a platform by the convention were made. This is taken to indicate that all three men are eager to be left out of a possible State squabble which may arise from the adoption of the platform.

Will H. Hays, like Colonel Roosevelt, Mr. Taft and Mr. Root, will not attempt to interfere with the issues involved in the State primary campaign. He has indicated that his address will be on the need of Republicans getting together and sinking all minor issues for the sake of the great national campaign in 1920.

Governor Whitman, who is a candidate for renomination at the primaries September 3, will endeavor to induce the convention to declare a platform in accordance with the well known policies to which he has adhered during the past two years. These may include declarations on the liquor question in favor of the ratification of the federal

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