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another purpose,-that of indicating outstanding differences of opinion and program, in order that these differences may be systematically stated for purposes of analysis and discussion.

To aid in the discovery and assessment of these experiments, the National Council has in preparation a list of Key Men and Women who will be appointed in the various states to represent the National Council in its efforts to collect useful information and then to give currency to it. While this organization seems to represent all the elements out of which the best development of social studies must proceed, the most useful work will be done only with the co-operation of teachers and investigators in all parts of the country, to the end that lost motion and useless repetition may be eliminated and that mutually strengthening experiments may be pressed forward.

Persons who are interested in the wholesome development of the social studies, whether teachers or others, and if teachers, whether teachers of the social subjects or of some other subject, are urged to communicate with the secretary of the National Council, Edgar Dawson, 671 Park Avenue, New York City.

The selection of teachers for the grades is one of the most serious and delicate responsibilities of the superintendent. The grade teacher and the pupil's mother usually affect the attitude and spirit of the child most strongly and give him a mind-set for or against school and study. A given child either likes school; or is indifferent to it; or hates it. The child who likes school is generally the one who has a good teacher, is at least fairly good in his studies, and is fairly well treated by his fellow pupils. About the indifferent pupil we do not seriously worry. But when a child hates school something is wrong with the child or the school. There is somewhere a specific cause for his state of mind, and in the interests of all parties concerned it should be discovered. This cause is practically sure to be found in either (1) a self-consciousness (bashfulness) on the part of the child, which, to many a sensitive child is the source of real and constant suffering, but which is not really very serious, as it will wear away after a time; or (2) a state of backwardness in his studies, resulting oftentimes from interruptions caused by sickness or other breaks in his earlier school work, or, rarely, by some physical or mental defect which should be discovered and remedied as soon as possible; or (3) in a well-founded or imaginary dislike to his teacher.

Now, in this last case a serious effort should be made to find out whether such a dislike is well-founded or imaginary. This effort

should be made by the superintendent or the principal, or both, and also by the parent. Attention should be given to the attitude of the other pupils in this room. Is the one case which is being studied the only one, or are many or all the pupils in this room out of harmony with this teacher? Are there evidences of a general lack of co-operation between teacher and pupils? How does the behavior of these pupils toward other teachers and other school functions compare with their conduct in this teacher's presence? What do they say to each other and to their parents about this teacher? What does the teacher say, herself, about her work with her pupils? Does she enjoy her work and feel that it is going well and successfully? What does she feel to be the matter with the given case under observation? Sometimes, in such an investigation, it will be found that the given child's case is only one of many in the same room. Then, if possible, the teacher should be transferred to another grade or room and the result watched carefully. If the same results appear under the new environment and cannot be overcome, a change should be made by this teacher, voluntarily or otherwise, in the interests of the pupils of this school. The school exists for the sake of the children,-not for the sake of giving a job to one who wishes to be a teacher but who, for some hidden and obscure reason, perhaps, will never be able to make a successful one. The children have to remain, and they must be educated. The given teacher can find work elsewhere, and may be psychologically and practically a fit in some other place.

Of course the greatest care and patience must be used in such a case. The principal and the superintendent must exhaust all resources before taking the extreme action of discharging the teacher. The source of the difficulty may be wholly temperamental, and the unsuccessful teacher may be a person well qualified for a high order of success in something else besides teaching. We know of a case where a trained nurse found herself wholly misplaced in nursing. Some subtle "atmosphere" unrealized by herself and unexplainable by those whom she attended, made her non persona grata to patient after patient, until at last the hospital authorities had to advise her to give up nursing and seek another profession; which she did, and was successful.

The problem discussed in this paragraph is one that now and then must be faced by the school authorities. Its difficulty does not justify its evasion.

So many books are sent to this department of EDUCATION that it is impossible to review them all. Naturally we feel under obligation to give preference to the books of those publishing houses which more or less frequently use our advertising pages. Outside of the limitations thus set, we shall usually be able and glad to mention by title, authors, and publishers, such books as are sent to us for this purpose. More elaborate notices will necessarily be conditional upon our convenience and the character of the books themselves.

A DICTIONARY OF CLASSIFIED QUOTATIONS. By W. Gurney Benham. Thomas Y. Crowell Company. Price $5.00.

This is the most extensive book of quotation we remember ever to have seen. The book is 8vo, cloth, 650 pages and is admirably classified for ready reference. It includes the best and most useful of old familiar quotations and also contains thousands of new ones. Every writer and every speaker should have this book upon his study table. It is a fine thing to say a thing well, originally; it is equally well, and sometimes even better, to back up what one says well by the quotation of the saying of it by another or by several others, especially when the quotations are from noted thinkers. The well expressed thoughts of others are a great stimulus to correct thinking and graceful expression,-than which nothing is more valuable in whatever walk of life ours may be. Teachers, preachers, politicians, business men, the large and steadily enlarging classes of women who are coming to the fore so rapidly of late as participants in all sorts of public meetings would do well to place this book upon their library table and frequently turn to it, not only to quote what it will give them in the words of others, but as well to get inspiration for correct thinking and graceful expression for themselves. Contact with deep thinking and forceful speech begets the same in others. As another has said of this book: "One may dig at random and always come up with hands full of sparkling gems of thought."

BUSINESS ENGLISH. A Practice Book. By Rose Buhlig. D. C. Heath and Company.

This is a revised and enlarged edition of a well known standard book on this important subject.

THE MENTOR PLAN OF HOME BUDGETS. The Mentor Company. Price $1.00.

A practical accounting book for individual expenses; encourages thrift; MAN, THE ANIMAL. By Dr. William Martin Smallwood. Macmillan Company. Price $2.50.

This book contains such scientific information, fully up to date, as teachers, preachers, nurses, social workers and parents should have in order to deal properly with those who are more or less under their guidance and care. The book is up-to-date and scientific, as well as practical.

The Mac

A HISTORY OF ROME TO A. D. 565. By Arthur E. R. Boak, Ph.D., Professor of Ancient History in the University of Michigan. millan Company.

A scholarly and practical textbook of Roman life and literature for introductory college courses. The black-face type used in the paragraph headings throughout the book are of value in memorizing and for reference. The book is written by a thorough student and lover of the great peoples of historic Italy. His insight into the facts and their meaning, and his enthusiasm for the study of the statesmanlike peoples whose story he tells, will carry the students who use his book forward to further readings and investigations on their own account in the writings of others, and give them a real love of learning.

CIVIC SCIENCE IN THE HOME. By George W. Hunter, Ph.D., and Walter G. Whitman, A.M. The American Book Company.

Can you read the gas meter in your home? Have you scientifically studied and understood the advantages and disadvantages of hot air, hot water or steam heating for your present or prospective residence? Do you know how best to fight various kinds of household pests? Do you know how to plan and beautify the home grounds? Do you use proper measures to remove wastes from the home and to secure proper ventilation? This book, carefully taught and studied in the home and the school, will save many lives and promote health and happiness.

ADVANCED LESSONS IN EVERYDAY ENGLISH. By Emma Miller Bolenius. The American Book Company.

This book is written throughout on the "project-method" plan. Its object is to make correct language habits automatic, to develop thinking power, and to make the pupil enjoy his English work by connecting it up with everyday doings-or projects. Forty projects are provided, and the socialized recitation idea gives opportunity for organization, team work, discussion groups, program periods, voting, etc. A thoroughly modern English book that will appeal to teachers and pupils and stimulate new zeal and interest in the work of English classes.

MODERN TIMES AND THE LIVING PAST. By Henry W. Elson, A.M., Litt.D. The American Book Company.

It is a stupendous task to boil down the entire history of the world into a single volume. The author has attempted this task, modestly claiming that he has worked with the interest of young readers in mind, and with a due appreciation of the difficulties in choosing what to include and what to omit. He has sought to present "the general sweep of the great current of events, . . . the salient features that contributed most to

the development of the nations." He has chosen wisely and well. The book is one that classes will delight to study, and that will quicken their interest in affairs both remote and present. It is a good volume to have at hand in the home, for frequent reference. It is fully and richly illustrated. Its latest chapters deal with the events of the World War.

BEGINNING SPANISH. Direct Method. By Aurelio M. Espanosa, Ph.D. and Clifford G. Allen. The American Book Company.

The popularity of Spanish as a school study since the "black eye" which was given to German by the World War, has made an entirely new series of text books a necessity. This book aims to give a complete mastery of the language to the pupil, so that he can both read and speak it fluently. It advocates teaching the spoken language from the very beginning. It teaches Spanish in Spanish. This is surely the best way, from the standpoint of both the practical student who wishes to obtain a commercial position among Spanish-speaking people, and also from that of the scholarly pupil who wishes to make available the riches of Spanish literature and life as crystalized in books, pictures, music and other forms of expression. There are 68 easy, progressive lessons, besides the introductory chapters and several appendices.


CIVICS, COMMUNITY, STATE AND NATION. By Charles Edgar Finch. American Book Company.

The subject of Civics is rapidly winning a permanent place for itself in the schools of our country. It is one of the most important subjects for the making of intelligent citizenship. A good book, like this one, has a mission. The subject is here made attractive and the pupil has an opportunity to gather information for himself, the book guiding him and interpreting the phenomena which fall under his daily observations and experiences. We cannot praise too highly this attractive book, or this branch of the curriculum; both should find their way into all school programs in the later elementary or early high school grades.

HERE AND NOW STORY BOOK. By Lucy Sprague Mitchell. New York, E. P. Dutton & Company. Price $2.00.

A book of experimental stories written for children of the city and country schools and the Nursery School of the Bureau of Educational Experiments. By all means, teachers of children, get and study this attractive volume. It is a new kind of book, carefully built up on the model of stories actually told by the children themselves about what they were interested in and had thought and done themselves. For this reason these stories are understood by other children. They reproduce their

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