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mit, then a great injustice is done them by holding them to the lockstep of the middle group. It is to these exceptional children that the nation must look for the creative genius and leadership by means of which society may evolve a greater civilization. Similarly, if the "dull" pupils could be taught separately at a slower rate of progress, which would permit them to keep up with the discussions or activities, take an interest in the subjects, and learn all that their capabilities permitted, then, similarly, a great injustice is done these pupils by permittting them to more than waste their time in dragging through what is to them unintelligible discussions and to acquire the "habit of failure." The almost inevitable outcome of such maladjustment is the premature quitting of school and the consequent misfortune of a half-finished education accompanied by a feeling of malevolence toward the school and society.
There are five factors which should be taken into consideration when classifying pupils: the educational tests, intelligent tests, school records, teachers' judgment, and physical tests. Whether an individual is working up to his capacity or not will be determined by the correlation between the educational test and the mental test. This result is known as the accomplishment quotient. The educational tests and mental tests are perhaps the most reliable means of classifying pupils but they should never be considered alone without taking into consideration school records, teachers' judgment, and physical tests. It is not necessary to discuss the advantages of educational and mental tests but it is well to write briefly of a few of their disadvantages. The norms or standards used in these tests must be studied very carefully in arriving at results. We should know whether they are standards for the Spring or Fall and just the type of group from which these standards were made. For instance, it is unfair to compare the results of rural school children and city school children on the basis of educational tests when we use standards which are derived from city school groups. We should also know the amount of retardation in the group from which standards are derived. In our elementary schools where our amount
of acceleration is unusually high, eighteen and six-tenths per cent, and retardation is unusually low, seventeen and five-tenths per cent, we find that in a large number of the educational tests we fall just a little below the standard or norm. This does not mean that we are below but it simply means that these standards or norms were derived from groups which had a larger per cent of retardation. Another illustration of a further difficulty in handling educational and mental tests is the problem of the chronological age of the pupil. Unless we have the exact chronological age of the pupil the test is not fair. Most pupils do not know how old they are. Just recently in our elementary school, children were asked to state, on an intelligent test, their age. These statements were compared with their ages on the record cards in the office and then these children were asked again their ages and we find in several cases three different ages for the same pupil. In a number of cases the differences were a year and over.
Intelligence tests are largely academic in scope and based on school success. They detect the academic qualities of pupils which are of great importance for success in the ordinary school curriculum, and they fairly measure abstract intelligence. Thorndike tells us there are three types of intelligence, abstract, social, and mechanical, and I believe the school should make provision for each of these types. At the present time we are only measuring the abstract intelligence. An individual may have a low I. Q. and still be a success in life. Mechanical intelligence may be of quite as general importance as that required to score high in abstract intelligence tests. Especially is this true in view of the fact that the present environment is so largely permeated with the fruits of mechanical genius and applied science. It is not necessary to speak of the necessity of training social intelligence.
There is a strong tendency to attach a stigma to pupils scoring low in an intelligence test. We emphasize too much the abstract intelligence, especially when we find that such a small percent of our pupil population have this abstract intelligence to any large degree. Instead of saying we emphasize too much, I should say that we do not emphasize enough the other types of intelligence.
Classifying pupils in terms of their ability for different types of intelligence will no doubt solve many of our present problems of classification and promotion.
Terman quotes the mental age necessary to do work in the freshman year at fourteen years six months to fifteen years five months. Are our high school standards too high, are they too narrow, are they too far removed from the kinds of mental capacity of pupils ? >Instead of simply dismissing our apparently stupid pupils as low in general intelligence and dumping them in some convenient class we should discover what other kinds of intelligence they possess and educate them accordingly.
School records should be taken into consideration in classifying pupils, as we find a fairly close correlation between pupils' relative standard in one school or grading and their relative standing in the succeeding school or grade. Clements found in dividing pupils in the elementary school into three groups according to their average standing, seventy-five percent of those in the upper and lower thirds remained on the same side of the median in high school. Dearborn found fifty percent of the pupils in the highest; and the lowest fourth in their high school remained in the corresponding fourth in their first year in college.
Teachers' judgment should also play a part in classifying pupils. Especially in determining their social intelligence and moral character. Teachers' judgments are valuable in determining such qualities as energy, persistency, regularity of attendance, and school attitude. These are all very necessary qualities to be taken into consideration when promoting and classifying pupils. Quite frequently we find a difference between teachers' judgment of the same pupils. Such variation may indicate the difference in reaction of pupils to different teachers and may be an important part of our information.
Physical tests are very valuable in determining the physiological and social age of an individual. The study of the pupils health and physical strength are very desirable additions to other types of examination. We do not as yet have an accurate method for diagnosing physical age but such facts as height, weight, rate
of growth, dentition, and pubertal signs serve as very useful criteria. The level of social development as indicated by physiological age serves as one basis for classification.
If our interests were simply in making a rough classification and of the achievment of pupils we might regard the intelligence tests as being entirely satisfactory. There is an important reason why we should use these other methods. These other methods give us a composite measure and the intelligence tests a somewhat more narrowly defined measure. By a combination we are able to make an analysis of the pupils' ability which could not be otherwise made.
Patient pines have made the bed
On either side their somber height
And just below, so very near,
Scent of pine, bright stars above,
In this His caravansary.
EFFIE F. KNOWLTON.
A National Council for the Social Studies completed its organization in Chicago on February 25th. Its purpose is to lay the foundations for training democratic citizens, and its sponsors believe that such training can result only from a carefully developed and adequately supported system of teaching in the elementary and secondary schools. Its plan looks to promoting cooperation among those who are responsible for such training, including at least the university departments which contribute knowledge of facts and principles to civic education, and the leading groups of educational leaders, such as principals, superintendents and professors of education, who develop the methods of handling these facts.
An advisory board was set up composed of representatives of (1) the five associations of scholars most nearly related to the purpose of the National Council, historians, economists, political scientists, sociologists, and geographers; (2) the national organizations of educational investigators and administrators, elementary and high school principals, teachers of education, normal school principals, and superintendents; and (3) regionary associations of teachers of history and civics. The function of this advisory board is to bring into the National Council the points of view of the organizations represented by its members, and to insure a development of the social studies which will be in harmony with the best educational thought, as well as based on the best present practice.
The following officers were elected for the year 1922-1923: L. C. Marshall, professor of economics in the University of Chicago, President; Henry Johnson, professor of history in Teachers College, VicePresident; Edgar Dawson, professor of government in Hunter College, Secretary-Treasurer; E. U. Rugg, Lincoln School, New York, Assistant Secretary. An executive committee, charged with the general direction of the policies of the association, will consist of the officers and the following elected members: C. A. Coulomb, District Superintendent, Philadelphia; W. H. Hathaway, Riverside High School, Milwaukee; Bessie L. Pierce, Iowa University High School. The first task the National Council is undertaking is the preparation of a Finding List of those experiments or undertakings in the teaching of the social studies which now give promise of being useful. This list will contain such exposition of the character and aims of these experiments as to make it possible for those working along parallel lines to discover each other and to co-operate more fully than would otherwise be probable. This expository material will have