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ruling ideas or ideals may be called the 'psychic dominants' of the civilization. . . . They are the dominant elements in that body of social tradition which furnishes the real environment to which the individual reacts." The tremendous influence of these psychic dominants upon human conduct is apparent in all periods of history. They account for the peculiarities of different ages and civilizations. Through history we find a succession of dominating ideas, having their expression in monasticism, the Crusades, chivalry, occasional eagerness for learning or art, exploration, movýments for religious or political freedom, witchcraft, other-worldliness, occasional waves of civic virtue, migration, the fevered search for wealth, etc. Each of these, and many others, have at times been striking factors in a psychic environment to which men have adjusted themselves.

The diversity of these psychic dominants, as presented in history and among different peoples, indicates the versatile character of human nature, which tends to adjust itself to any one of a variety of psychical situations. And, of course, in so far as the dominant factor in the psychical environment can be rationally controlled or produced, so far is the life and conduct of the individual intelligently regulated. The term "psychic dominant" is attributed to the historian, Lamprecht. Ellwood urges, however, that social life, especially modern civilized society, is much more complex than Lamprecht assumed, and that in a correct interpretation of it we may find not one ruling idea but many.

The direct relation of such psychological factors as instinct, intelligence, habit, imitation, suggestion and feeling, to the social life is elaborated by Elwood; and while very important to social psychology, this material will be omitted for lack of space. Notable contributions to the subject have been made by Baldwin, Tarde, McDougall, Hobhouse, and others. We are concerned next with some basic problems of sociology.

The most fundamental concerns of sociology are the problems of social order or organization, and of social change or progress. The problem of social order has to do with a settled or harmo

1 Introduction to Social Psychology, p. 130.

nious relation between the individuals and groups making up a society. Organization is, of course, essential to any group life. In order to secure harmonious social adjustments societies have maintained certain regulative institutions. The chief of these are government, law, religion, morality and education. In the brief discussion which follows, it will be seen that each of these, in order to be effective, depends upon educational methods, and therefore that education is fundamental to them all.

Government supported by law is commonly thought of as the chief regulative institution. And it is so when social order is regarded mainly in terms of police powers. It is the agency of last resort to restrain the behavior of the individual in the interest of the group, or let us say, of the dominant group. To a great extent, indeed, government in the past has been maintained to promote the privileges of dominant classes at the expense of others. Today nations are striving to become democratic, to make government representative of the whole group, and therefore above individual and class egoisms. This is possible only where individual citizens are dominated by patriotic and humanitarian ideals. To secure these is the work of education. Today it is recognized more than ever before, that government has the positive function of actively promoting the social welfare. We have not the fear of government as had the individualists of the recent past. "That government is not best which governs least, but rather that which governs most; provided it does it in socially wise ways, so as neither to destroy individual initiative nor to block normal social change."1 But broad increase in the functions of government would be suppressive of democracy without wide diffusion of knowledge.

Religion has always been a powerful factor in maintaining the social order. Often it has been used in defense of exploitation and has been therefore an obstacle to progress. At other times it has been a potent force for good, and there is no reason why

1 Introduction to Social Psychology, p. 269.

it should not attach its sanctions to an increasingly higher social order and become a telling factor in human advance. "What is needed is a socialized religion, a 'religion of humanity,' which will make the service of man the highest expression of religion. . . . The Church, as the concrete institutional expression of the religious life . . . ought to become the public conservator and propagator of social values. . . . This means that it must become largely an educational institution, . . . a society where the highest ethical culture is given to all who come within its influence." This type of church will depend wholly on educational methods.

Social order must rest upon positive moral standards, standards which have to be raised as civilization advances. The simpler morality of early times does not suffice. Higher types are needed as civilization grows in complexity. No moral ideal is effective which is not stated in social terms. In fact, "The moral ideal must be pictured, not as a perfect individual, but as a perfect society, consisting of all humanity. This means that we must have a socialized or humanitarian ethics which will teach the individual to find his self-development and his happiness in the service of others, and which will forbid any individual, class, nation, or even race, from regarding itself as an end in itself, apart from the rest of humanity." If the time and energy now spent in teaching and preaching the ideal of a perfect individual could be transferred to training the imagination of people to catch the vision of a superior social order, a giant stride in progress would be the result. It is not some vague Utopia that is wanted, but a social ideal scientifically constructive, having due regard for human traits both actual and latent. It is especially important to point out immediate steps in the attainment of the ideal. Of course, no concept of a perfect individual can be formulated except in reference to the whole social situation in which he is conceived to exist.

The conclusion of the discussion on social order is that all regulative institutions depend on education to be effective, and there

2 Ibid., p. 273.

1 Introduction to Social Psychology, p. 276.

fore that education must be the ultimate form of control.

"Personal education, therefore, furnishes the ultimate and most subtle form of control, because it controls the formation of habit and so of character in the developing individual. It must be the main reliance of civilized society in securing high types of social order. If properly carried out, personal education should furnish to the developing individual at the plastic period of life a controlled artificial environment, especially a subjective environment of the proper ideas, ideals, standards and values. It can accordingly mold individual character in almost any direction which heredity makes possible." Education of a socialized type is urged by Ellwood, therefore, as the ultimate means of social control; but, it should be observed, that it is not thought of as separate from the other regulative institutions so much as the method by which the others are to be realized.

Theories to account for progress are next in order of discussion. The anthropo-geographical theory finds the active causes of human progress in favorable conditions of the physical environment. The biological or ethnological theory of progress accounts for a few factors, but at best man's biological constitution can furnish only a basis on which his social progress can take place. It can offer, therefore, but potentialities of his progress. Much more consideration can be given to the economic theory of progress, but as an adequate theory it must be rejected because it regards the mind as a more or less passive reflex of the environment, instead of an active instrument of adaption, an agency with centrally initiated powers. It makes ideas depend upon mere environment to the neglect of original human nature as a factor.

Psychical theories of progress, theories which see progress to depend upon psychical factors, furnish the best explanation of human progress; furthermore, they emphasize elements within human control. This view means that the changes in man's ideas, standards and values have been the chief factors in his social advance. Certainly man's ideas are not mere reflections from a material environment. The intellect and its ideas must be seen 2 Ibid., p. 278.

as instruments of adjustment and as the means by which social progress can be rationally planned and controlled. The final success of the prohibition movement may be suggested as an illustration of the powerful effect of the diffusion of ideas. Certainly it cannot be ascribed to changes in geographical, biological, or even economic conditions. It is to be traced rather to the accumulation and diffusion of ideas and ideals. It is an illustration of how new knowledge and standards have produced a veritable revolution, although pitted against long-established modes defended by privileges and vested interests. And there is reason to believe, says Ellwood, that rational changes and adaptations in every phase of life can be effected by the same process.

The sociological theory of progress is introduced by Professor Ellwood for final acceptance. The psychological view alone is not enough. The sociological theory is synthetic and recognizes that all the above conceptions contribute some factors to a complete theory. We found that the psychological view transcended all the preceding in importance, nevertheless the character of the psychic factors which will result in progress must be determined. The intellectual elements of knowledge, beliefs and standards, also emotional attitudes and values, need to be socialized, need to be of a type which make for efficient and harmonious social relations; they need to be given a humanitarian direction without special favor to any class or group. To Professor Ellwood no scheme of progress is complete which does not regard the whole human race as its goal. "It is only ideas, standards and values which are capable of serving as instruments of the increasing social co-ordination and co-adaptation of the largest possible human grouphumanity as a whole-which are capable of working consistently in the direction of social progress."1

We have been discussing theories of social progress. By way of conclusion we need a further look into the nature of society itself. What is society? What holds the various parts together? What is of especial significance in the relations among men? Three theories on the essential nature of the social bond are pre1 Introduction to Social Psychology, p. 810.

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