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answer, even when the hand has been only partially raised, he has been designated to voice the answer. From now on, some of the best answers will come from those having “ 'sperience," as one of them would have said.)

T. (Very thoughtfully) Are you sure you have given me all the classes? I have been in a great many schools and found in them all, other classes. (At this point the pupils will suddenly sit up, become far more intense in their thinking; wonder what classes have been omitted.) Let me see. Do not most of your pupils come to school on time, have their work completed on time, and are ready for recitation on time? What name shall we apply to these "ON TIME” pupils ?

C. They are the prompt class.

T. Agree? (Teacher writes at one side of the board away from the work already written, the word “prompt.”)

T. What name do you give to those who are late?
C. They are the tardy class.
Similarly the teacher obtains two lists like the following:

Industrious Lazy


Unkind T. What one word might name all the prompt, industrious, honest, and kind people ?

C. The "good" class.
T. What shall we call the other class ?
C. The "bad" class.
T. Agree? (Teacher writes.)

1. Names: Good -Bad.
T. Who makes these classes?
C. We make 'em. (By one of the hardest boys in the class.)
T. Agree? Are you sure?

Are you sure? Disagree? (Writes.)

2. Made by the pupils. T. How may I know who are in the good class? Oh, I know.

I Will all who are in the Good Class please rise ? (Children, smil

ingly, look at each other very knowingly.) What? Would you all rise? Well, I am glad that when we think about it carefully, every man, woman, and child wants to be in the Good Class. But do you think that all really are in the Good Class. (Shaking of the heads and other manifestations of disagreement.)

Well, how then am I to know the class to which you really belong?

C. You can tell from our actions.

T. Agree? Oh, I see. When a boy is doing something wrong I know he is in the Bad Class?

C. (An “old timer") One bad act would not put him in the Bad Class. T. You puzzle me.

How do we put ourselves into the Bad Class?

C. (A little "street arab” who has given furtive attention only, has a spasm in his right arm as if against its owner's will it were trying to attract notice.) By keepin' at it. (I put that boy's answer here, just as he gave it, for a memorial of him. His subsequent struggle and climbing when the rocks cut hands and feet strengthen my faith in God and man.)

T. Agree? Yes, it is a blessed thing, "by keepin' at it” we put ourselves in the Good Class too. Then I cannot know "at once" the class to which you belong. I must learn, you must learn little by little which class. I will write.

3. Made from actions.

4. Made gradually, “by keepin' at it.” T. How does a person's staying in one of these classses affect his wanting to stay in it?

C. (An obliging little girl looking at the first column on the board). The longer a person stays in one of these classes the less he wants to stay in it. T. Agree? Class seem to agree.

Teacher therefore writes the answer as number 5 in second column. Facing the class, he sees a boy twisting very uneasily in his seat. He has been absent eight or ten days playing "hooky.” He is so uneasy that the teacher says, "What is it, John ?”

John, hesitatingly: I don't think that is right.

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T. (Looking wonderingly over the class). “The class think it is right.”

John, decidedly: But it isn't. (The comrades of John having had “ 'sperience,” now rally to his support, and nod approvingly.)

T. Why, John, we have settled that. All the class but you agreed to it before I wrote on the board. (Here there is much commotion in the class and signs of dissatisfaction with what the teacher has on the board.) John, what makes you think what we have on the board is wrong?

John (all the blood in his body showing in his face but with a tone of conviction): When I was out last week playing hooky with the boys, the longer I stayed with them, the more I wanted to

I stay.

T. (Somewhat crestfallen, to the others.) Do you agree with him? (Unanimous response.) Well, John, how do you think it should be? Teacher writes from John's dictation.

5. The longer a person stays in one of these classes

the more he wants to stay in it. T. Where are these classes found ?

6. These classes are found everywhere. T. Looking at the work on the board, can you tell what is the thought in the first column? On what are these classes based ?

C. On what we know, or on our knowledge.
T. On what are the classes in the second column based ?
C. On what we are, or our character.

Teacher writes knowledge and character over their respective columns and the two Scripture texts over those two words, without comment. The whole lesson on the board will stand as follows:

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TWO CLASSIFICATIONS "It shall be done away.”

"Now abideth Faith,

Hope, Love.

CHARACTER 1. Names: 1st, 2nd,- -12th. 1. Names: Good -Bad. 2. Made by the superinten- 2. Made by the pupils.

dent and teacher.

3. Made from written exam- 3. Made from actions.

inations and class work. 4. Made at once.

4. Made gradually, “by keep

in' at it." 5. The longer a person stays in 5. The longer a person stays

one of these classes the less in one of these classes the he wants to stay in it.

more he wants to stay in it. 6. These classes are found in 6. These classes

are found school only.

everywhere. With this lesson in mind, let us note just what changes have taken place in the organization of the school. “The body of people united” is the same. The definite well-known purpose has been changed from “getting knowledge” to “developing character” with knowledge as a by-product. The specific well-known duties of each part of the organization have undergone a complete change. No longer is the pupil to be made, but to make. He puts himself in the Good Class or in the Bad Class. No one can do that for him. His duty is no longer passivity but selfactivity. The child invariably makes this mental resolution, "I will put myself in the Good Class.”

The individual experience of thought and feeling induced by the mental and spiritual activities of the exercise are due to the fact that the lesson emphasizes the fact of moral character, awakens a sense of personal responsibility, stirs the sense of moral obligation, arouses a sense of personal safety or danger, all the stronger because of the improbability of change, and predisposes to desirable action.

The pupil is now ready for the next step, namely, the opportunity to express this new ideal of self-activity.

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The Junior High School And The Drama

RUMMIDNINAMICHEN we consider the ultimate significance of its

objectives, we find that the Junior High School points in the direction of social betterment. The Junior High School movement, being a result of scientific investigation of the importance of the period of adolescence in our boys and girls, seeks

to introduce scientific methods of teaching children JuNTHICSINNIINITIE

at the most important formative period in their lives, thus laying foundations for an efficient and adaptable individual in every citizen of the United States. Accordingly, the institution which came into existence as a result of the movement, attempts, through proper selection of materials desirable for the peculiar nature of its pupils, to adapt its curriculum and its methods of instruction to its students in such a way as to bring about the acquisition by them of the knowledge, the ideals, the skill, and the habits which will work for ameliorating many

of our social shortcomings.

No doubt, the Junior High School will achieve many of its objectives, and will raise our social standards. I do not believe, however, that it will satisfy to any marked extent the ever-present hunger for spiritual expression, which is at the root of much of our social discontent. To be sure, the Junior High School will produce an efficient citizen, machinelike in his functions, and mechanical in his habits of living. His chief difficulty, however, the lack of spiritual enrichment, will not be removed. This will be true because, bewildered by the rapid growth of commerce and industry, the sponsors of the Junior High School devoted most of their attention to the satisfaction of the material needs of the people, failing to realize the importance of one of the most fundamental of human institutions——the institution of art, particularly of the drama.

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