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furnish mimeographed copies for class use and extension use in the state. Why should not every normal school and teachers' college so equip and staff its mental service station that it may cooperate confidently with its fellow teaching departments?

In describing the book stock of our normal school library it was said that we should follow our students into the field, with service by mail. That should be supplemented by an active information service, both general and special. If the normal school is turning out educational leaders, supervisors, principals, and superintendents, why should not the normal school library, within its territory, issue usable information as to the best literature available on subjects like playground supervision, supervised study, project method, visual education, vocational guidance, the correlation of civics, economics, industries, and history in the high school, silent reading, school hygiene, pageantry, and school consolidation, to mention only a few of many? To be valuable, information of this sort must be revised and re-issued at frequent intervals. It is an educational opportunity for the libraries of normal schools and teachers' colleges. It is my conviction that it is a form of service that brings big returns, both from the campus and classroom and from the larger campus in the state. It is good for education, good for the normal school, good for the library.

All this body and soul-and we have described only the high spots for the normal school library is not more than it needs, if it performs its proper educational service in the training of teachers for the great world of today.

The ideal librarian for this library is:

(1) Broad in scholarship, so as to enter intelligently and tolerantly into many human interests.

(2) Master of at least one branch of learning or skill, so as to understand the zeal and needs of the specialist.

(3) Unselfish, but not to the point of loss of self-respect.

(4) Persistent, but knows when to stop.

(5) Systematic, but not red-tapey.

(6) Social-minded, which means that the librarian loves people as much as books, because books were made for people to use.

(7) Neat in person and dress, because the librarian is the ambassador of the wisdom, the wit, the truth, and the beauty of the ages.

(8) Human, which means that the librarian believes in his work, enjoys living, understands the gravity of things, and can now and then enjoy a laugh at himself and the rest of the world.

The Opened Gate

From "Praise Songs."

Praise be to Thee, O Father, for Thy wondrous sky,
Where numberless gates of heaven wait to open!

Why do we not look up more?

I saw a burning sunset gleaming at the horizon-a pool of scarlet fire, And how still, how awful, how pure, how infinitely deep the arch of ether rose above it!

Beneath a long, level park road, bordered by stretching fields, deserted now and dimmed with the hue of twilight, ran straight. Far ahead a bowed man in a tipcart was silhouetted against the sky, The vault of immensity, where one or two stars twinkled, and the common, cheap figure below suddenly harmonized,

He seemed a part of some grand Whole which meant his-everybody's-salvation!

Children played by the roadside, their voices smiting sweetly this great tuned instrument, the earth.

All so good, so hope-imparting, I looked up again,

Conscious that one of the innumerable gates had opened!

All praise to Thee, great Maker, for this light of Thy Light!


The Democracy of Educational Opportunity

in Hawaii



"HROUGHOUT the mainland United States it is

customary to hear the praises of the American public school system as one of our most significant democratic institutions. The importance of the public schools in the production of an intelligent electorate is obvious.

The average citizen, however, even though he be fairly well educated, is not likely to realize that the American public school system has been developed to a relatively high degree of efficiency in a sub-tropical insular region, where the great mass of the children are of various lines of darkskinned foreign ancestry. The Territory of Hawaii is an outstanding example of the development of the American public schools under conditions very different from those which witnessed its origin.

There is no other region under the Stars and Stripes, and indeed no other place in the world, of similar agricultural conditions, where educational opportunities, both public and private, are more democratically distributed than in Hawaii. Hawaii challenges the mainland United States to show a distribution of educational opportunities as general or as equitable as it exists in Hawaii. In the Hawaiian archipelago, the educational conditions between the metropolis and the most sequestered hamlet are smaller than in any state. In this respect Hawaii is more democratic than many mainland states. One of the most efficient tests of the efficiency of a school system is a provision made that the children of the state are obliged to take advantage of the educational opportunities offered. Hawaii's compulsory law is older and better enforced than those of many mainland states.

The visitor to Hawaii who expects to find primitive or backward conditions, is astonished at the diversity and distribution of free education. Many of the plantations and rural communities support free kindergartens. There is also an extensive series of free kindergartens in the city of Honolulu. The elementary schools are under the control of one central territorial department.

A series of public high schools and junior high schools has developed rapidly during the past decade, and is now becoming one of the conspicuous features of the educational system. The University of Hawaii is free. With a rapid rise of the high schools has come a rapid growth in the University, and there are now large numbers of young people throughout the Islands looking forward to a free university education.

The Territorial Normal and Training School, the Territorial Trade School, the Lahainaluna School, and other specialized schools, are free and open to any qualified pupils.

The Territorial School for the Deaf and Blind, and the Territorial Home for Feeble-minded, also testify to Hawaii's high record in the field of free educational facilities to all who are needy.

In addition to the many schools and institutions supported by public taxation, there is another group of institutions which are under private foundation but which are operated without profit and are really public philanthropies; the Punahou School, established by the early missionaries; the Kamehameha Schools for Boys and Girls; the Hilo Boarding School; the Mid-Pacific Institute; a number of seminaries for girls, and various parochial and religious schools, provide education, board and lodging to large numbers of Hawaii's young people. In many instances, these schools board and lodge the pupils at less than cost.

Hawaii's educational facilities are open not only to her own children, but also to foreign-born children and to aliens who are ineligible to citizenship.

There are over 1,000 foreign-born children in the public schools. There are a number of students at the University of Hawaii who are aliens ineligible to citizenship, but who are receiving public education at the expense of the Territory and the Federal government.

The reasons for this remarkable situation are numerous and complicated, and are bound up with the unique history of this remote mid-Pacific archipelago. First, may be mentioned the influence of the New England missionaries, who came to the Islands in 1820. These were college men and women, with deep belief in "the little red schoolhouse" of New England, which they transplanted to Hawaii's balmy shores. Second was the fine spirit of the primitive Hawaiians, who welcomed the Missionaries and eagerly sought for the new learning. Such was their thirst for knowledge that adult schools were established throughout the Islands, and as early as 1840 the percentage of illiteracy in Hawaii was negligible. The native Hawaiians have always shown a keen interest in education. A third reason for the high educational development of Hawaii has been the splendid civic spirit of Hawaii's leaders in the fields of industry, economics and public affairs. They have generously supported education, both through public taxation and through private philanthropies. There is no other place in the world where the benefits of a school organization developed by the dominant class have been so generously given to the native and immigrant peoples. Hawaii's record in this respect is superb. A fourth reason has been the prosperous industrial development of Hawaii, which has yielded financial returns adequate to support and develop the diversified educational mechanism. Education in Hawaii is supported directly by the large industries and large commercial enterprises of the Territory.

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