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In the schools under consideration the total average time required of a single teacher for the performance of all varieties of clerical duty is about seven hours a week; while actual teaching time varies from fifteen to more than twenty-two hours a week; English teachers commonly having the heaviest schedules. For a twenty-two hour teacher, clerical duty, if added to teaching, increases the labor burden more than thirty per cent, or, if performed in teaching time, reduces that time by the same percentage, with a corresponding decrease in results. This is the case for every teacher when the clerical work is evenly distributed. But the fact is certified that English teachers, who often have a maximum teaching schedule with a minimum salary, and whose regularly assigned teaching duties always require a maximum of time and labor, are frequently required to perform extra clerical service for other teachers who have been excused from it because of "special teaching responsibility."

Without further comment upon these few facts and figures, they may perhaps have shown that the question at the head of this article is not undeserving of attention; and in certain cases may afford a final explanation, if any is needed, of the unsatisfactory results of English teaching. Perhaps, on the whole, it would be just as well in such cases to excuse the English teacher from all teaching, to give him instead clerical work or janitor work, or anything else that does not require theme reading and night labor, and let the janitor try to teach the English, if he will accept the job at the pay. The results might be about the same as at present, less the complainings, the impositions and the shattered nerves that sometimes fall to the lot of English and other teachers, even where school executives are not as hopelessly ignorant or materialistic and as hopelessly arbitrary as some. Hear the cry from the New Jersey wilderness, and its echoes from near and far: "Our superiors, being politicians, cannot utilize the idealism of their teachers." Evidently not, when each teacher is assigned at least three times the proper number of pupils and must give at least one-third of his time to clerical labor. And why should the English work of such schools be anywhere accepted as entitled to an academic rating?

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1. The size and importance of the occupation in the country and in the locality where the worker wishes to reside.

2. Whether the industry is a growing or diminishing field. Whether the occupation is or is not crowded.


4. Is the occupation stable, or is it tending to frequent change?

5. The hours per day and the amount of overtime common in the trade.

6. Method of payment for work done-time-work or piecework.

7. Is the work seasonable or steady?

8. Qualities necessary for success in particular occupation. 9. Physical and hygienic conditions of the occupation. 10. Opportunities for beginners in the occupation.

11. Average age at which beginners enter the occupation.

12. Wages at entrance upon occupation.

13. Ultimate opportunity for increased wages.

14. Have all beginners opportunity to learn more than one operation or kind of work?

15. Breadth of opportunity and surety of steady employment in time of trade fluctuation.

16. How skilled workers in the occupation are recruited.

17. Is there an apprenticeship system?

18. What percentage of all young beginners are apprenticed?

19. Trade-union restrictions as to apprenticeship or helpers.

20. Relation of school facilities to occupation.

21. tage?


Is school training, beyond the grammar school, of advan

Is vocational school training in any form an advantage? 23. Amount of each of the following required for efficiency: General knowledge.


b. Industrial and Economic intelligence.

c. Specialized technical knowledge.

d. Manipulative skill.

24. Is there need for vocational training before entering the occupation?

25. Would the instruction be most helpful if obtained before entrance upon the occupation, or after?

26. What institutions exist to furnish vocational training? 27. Is there need for a part-time school in the occupation?

America's Making


X÷HE festival and exhibit called "America's Making,"


will be presented by societies, schools, churches, libraries, museums and citizens of New York, during the month of October, 1921, under the auspices of the State and City Departments of Education. It has the endorsement of the Governor, the Mayor, and a large committee of citizens with offices at 7 West 16th Street, New York City. Franklin K. Lane is honorary president; John H. Finley, president; W. L. Ettinger, vice-president; Mrs. H. Edward Drier, secretary; H. D. Walbridge, treasurer; and John Daniels, general director.

The purpose of the pageant is to emphasize the meaning of our country's motto, "E Pluribus Unum," and to inculcate a broad and just spirit toward all the component parts of this great country, since we are essentially a nation of immigrants, and each race that has journeyed to our shores has not only received liberty and justice, but has contributed something to the development of the country.

The schools are busy tracing the lineage of great Americans; and the pupils spend considerable time in the libraries, finding the ancestry of our presidents, authors, artists, architects, musicians, inventors, financiers, captains of industry, statesmen and patriots. These findings are then classified and arranged on cards, -as, for instance:


Peter Stuyvesant, Peter Minuit-early governors of New York. The Van Rensselaers, Van Cortlands (and other Dutch families who settled in New York, New Jersey, and other Middle colonies, mentioned in the various school histories).

Oliver Wendell Holmes, author, who was of Dutch extraction on his mother's side.

Walt Whitman, poet and patriot, who was of mingled English and Dutch stock.

Edison, inventor, Dutch and Scotch.

Henry Van Dyke, author and diplomat.

Edward Bok, former editor of Ladies' Home Journal.
Roosevelt, president, warrior, author, traveler, etc.


James Monroe, fifth president.

Ulysses S. Grant, eighteenth president.

William McKinley, twenty-fifth president.

Daniel Webster, statesman.

James Russell Lowell, author, English and Scotch ancestry.
John Paul Jones, naval commander, born in Scotland.
Washington Irving, author, English and Scotch.


Several of our presidents, including Washington, John Adams, Madison, John Quincy Adams, the Harrisons, Lincoln, Garfield,


Samuel Slater (born in England), father of American manufactures.

George Peabody, philanthropist.

Timothy Cole (born in England), landscape painter.

Benjamin West, painter (Quaker).

John G. Whittier, poet (Quaker).

Edgar Allen Poe, author.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, author (Pilgrim and Puritan). Nathaniel Hawthorne, author.

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In one school (P. S. No. 70, Brooklyn, Isidore L. Ach, principal) all the classes, from the 6A through 8B, are arranging these racial indexes, in addition to which the 6A's and 6B's are preparing exercises about Americans descended from the Teutonic races: Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, German and English. The 7A's will add their contribution to the pageant by celebrating

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