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boys, which is offensive to them and nourishes the wrong spirit in the teacher.

(b) Allows an atmosphere of trust and co-operation to grow up around teachers and pupils.

(c) Makes boys better able to resist temptation in College and business."-George School, George School, Pa.

"2. They share a large part of the discipline with the masters. They hold the study room and dormitory (to some extent) and steady the school everywhere and at all times."-Morristown School, Morristown, N. J.

"8. Before these squads were organized, the teaching force was called upon to devote a total of about twenty-five or thirty periods per day to patrol and monitor work from which they are now relieved. Moreover, these squads perform many duties which formerly were left undone, but which are very desirable and helpful. A case in point is the guarding of the doors against the entrance of suspicious persons. This duty alone would require eighteen periods per day on the part of the teaching force.

The strongest argument in favor of the squad system, however, is the value derived from it by the boys themselves. There is the training in leadership, in self-control, in the exercise of judgment and of tact, and in other qualities that go to make up the perfect man and useful citizen. Many parents consider experience on the squad more valuable than any subject in the curriculum."-DeWitt Clinton High School.

There are many forms of government: some are modeled after the state, others after the city, while others have a form all their own. In some cases the teachers are members of one or more of the governing bodies; in otherst they are merely advisers. In most cases, the systems were considered fairly permanent, and every case the principal was satisfied with results. The usual reason given was, "Because it works."

The following replies are from schools where there is no system of self-government, but student co-operation:

"1. It is practised in a general way, but we don't attempt to

make any showy exhibition of self-government, with elaborate organizations, etc."

"2. All the eight classes have distinct class organizations with well prepared constitutions, officers, etc. Besides this, there are debating clubs, literary clubs, language clubs, and a current events club, all of which take part in the control of school activities." "3. Friendly and personal, but not compelled to be so officially."

"4. Yes, and more than that. New policies and plans for all activities have to be approved by the principal or his representative. All classes have faculty advisers and faculty auditors." "5. Much of our system has been outlined above. It is, I believe thoroughly systematic and natural. It is not in any way artificial. No organization for self-government is followed which requires the creation of fictitious officers like mayors, governors, captains, such as are sometimes found in student government schemes. There is no body of students to whom matters of discipline or government are referred. We tried that plan here once, and it was a failure. We try to stimulate the idea of a school democracy, with a variety of natural student activities having separate organizations, but under the careful oversight and practical direction of the principal, either directly or through his representatives. It is a school system and does not attempt to imitate a city system or any other system of government. We believe in student initiative, student self-control, and student control of activities with reservations, but it is a school system and nothing else."-Technical High School, Springfield, Mass.

"2. The pupils are given control of their own class meetings. They elect their officers without any control or influence on the part of the teachers. The school, however, sees to it that elections are honestly held, and we have a few cases on record where a class election or a debating society election has been declared void by the principal.

"3. I can say, in general, that the relation between the teachers and pupils in our schools is very cordial, and that there is a good

deal of pleasant companionship mixed in. We have four high schools, and each one of them has a somewhat individual character, with its own atmosphere."

"4. All constitutions of societies or classes that are permitted in the schools must have the approval of the principal of the respective schools. We do not permit any secret societies in the schools."

"5. We do not have a so-called complete system of self-gov ernment, and, I am frank to say I do not believe in it. I have had an experience extending over something like twenty years as high school teacher and high school principal, and while I have always believed in as few rules as possible, and in as little obtrusive discipline as possible, at the same time I believe that in the so-called system of self-government, the principal and teachers are just as responsible for the good order of the school as under any other system, and if anything should go wrong, the criticism would not fall upon the pupils, but would fall upon the principal and the teachers, and it is my opinion that it is merely another system of running the school, and as far as I have been able to tell, it is a very difficult system, which makes excessively large demands upon the teachers and upon the principal, and a system which few people can carry out successfully for any length of time."Department of Education, St. Paul, Minn.

"5. The Eastern High School, Baltimore, has student co-operation but not self-government. The co-operative body is known as the school council, and consists of delegates from each division of the four classes, elected by the members of the divisions. The council meets regularly once a month, from November to May, and on call whenever occasion requires. The duties of the members consist largely in observing conditions in the school and reporting on them. The main purpose of the council is not disciplinary; it is rather to establish closer relations between the principal and the student body; to permit informal discussion of matters close to the heart of the pupils, but which the principal might otherwise hear nothing about."

"We have no self-government system, so named, in any of the high schools of the city. We have class organizations in various schools that serve a similar purpose, and the most cordial cooperation is maintained for the sake of shaping the public opinions of the schools regarding all matters among young people that might by thoughtlessness affect the honor of the institutions to which they belong. We have always believed that it was better to invite help for positive purpose when a distinct problem presented itself than to have any kind of standing organization. We have made successful appeals for the control of stealing, honesty in written work, retraint in matters of excessive athletics and class spirit; beyond this we have not gone."-Denver Public Schools.

"In reply to your questionnaire, I can say that we do not practice self-government in this school in the sense in which that term is usually applied. So far as my observation and experience go, what is called self-government in schools has been merely the exercise of the authority and control of the principal or other school officers through students. The success or failure of this sort of control has depended entirely upon the strength of the school officers and their tactfulness in working out their will through others. In a sense, this school has student government of that sort, for in our varied and carefully considered social organizations we do make effective the best opinion of the school through individual students holding social positions. For instance, the captains and managers of all our athletic teams constitute the captain and managers' club. To members of this club are delegated a good many duties and responsibilities which help to make effective high standards of sportsmanship in our games, both within and without the school. There are two other organizations, one of the boys, the other of the girls, made up of the persons holding certain social positions in the school which are regarded as important, and these organizations are used to make effective the highest standards of social morals throughout the school. I am all the time looking for more ways to make these organizations more widely effective. You will see, however, that

there is no formal attempt to organize self-government in the school, and for this reason, answers to questions which you ask are impossible, except to state that we have no self-government in our school."-University High School, University of Chicago.

These writers evidently do not consider it necessary to bring into the school the machinery of either state or city government in order to develop self-control and citizenship.

The following answers come from schools where there seems to be a direct opposition to anything savoring of self-government: "I find, upon investigation, that there is no organized selfgovernment in the high schools of the city. The various principals of the schools have at times experimented along this line, with results which, on the whole, were unsatisfactory."-Detroit, Michigan.

"We teach our pupils personal self-control, as far as possible, through certain selected teachers called grade advisors. I do not believe, however, that children who have not reached an age where the mind is capable of forming correct judgment through logical reasoning, are able to act in an official capacity, or even able judiciously to select officials for their government.”—Bryant High School, Long Island City, N. Y.

"System was given up some nine years ago."-Hyde Park High School, Chicago.

"I will say that in no organized or systematic way have we adopted the self-government plan in our schools of Madison. We allow the greatest freedom possible to our students and put them as completely as possible upon their good behavior. We feel that our results are gratifying and that our general order, discipline and spirit are good."-Madison, Wis.

"I would not approve of a full system not strongly under faculty control. I have much complaint from parents of their experiences in some schools having student government. The reason for it seems to be too large a transfer of authority in things which young people have not been trained to handle."-Swarthmore Preparatory School, Swarthmore, Pa.

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