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1. He must go home today; he must have gone yesterday.

2. He was obliged (or, He had) to go yesterday.

3. He said yesterday that he must go home.

4. Those were the things that (he said) he must do. 5. We were no sooner seated than A

must come in.

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186. Ought. Ought is used like should (§ 190) to denote duty. The past tense is now regularly expressed by ought with the perfect infinitive (§ 220), except in indirect quotation (§ 177):

1. He ought to (or should) go today; he ought to (or should) have gone yesterday (§ 220).

2. He said yesterday that he ought to go. (Not 'should go', which would be ambiguous; § 195.)

3. Ought we not to (or Should we not) take off our hats? 4. Our train ought to (or should) be here now.

NOTE. Do not say 'had ought'. See ought, § 417.

187. Should, would, of simple futurity. Should and would are often used like shall and will to denote simple futurity (§ 178); read aloud and learn by heart the following forms, but do not ordinarily emphasize should or would:


1. I should like it.
2. Thou wouldst like it.
3. He would like it.
1. We should like it.
2. You would like it.
3. They would like it.

INTERROGATIVE WITH ANSWER Should I like it? Yes, you would. Shouldst thou like it? Yes, I should. Would he like it? Yes, he would.

Yes, you would.

Yes, I (we) should.

Should we like it?
Should you like it?
Would they like it? Yes, they would.

Read aloud the following sentences (see § 361):

1. I should be glad to see him. Shouldn't you?
2. Should you be sorry to go? I think you would.
3. You and I should be happy there, shouldn't we?
4. Should I find you in if I called tomorrow?

5. I shouldn't be surprised if they did not come. 6. Should you miss him if you stayed longer?

7. Where should you be at ten o'clock if I returned?

8. Is it a book that you would like to own? (Here would is not changed to 'should', because it is in a subordinate clause and is not affected by the question. The answer, of course, has should: 'Yes, it is a book that I should like very much to own'. See § 179, 8, and § 195, 15.)

188. Should like, should have liked. The difference between such forms as 'I should like to have gone' and 'I should have liked to go' is that the former expresses a choice still present in the mind of the speaker, whereas the latter denotes that the choice once present has ceased to exist. Do not say 'I should have liked to have gone' or 'He would not have liked to have gone' (see § 220).

189. Should, would, of obligation, etc. Should and would are often used like shall and will in § 180, to denote possible obligation and willingness. To express such possible obligation and willingness in declarative sentences, use would in the first person, and should in the second and third; in interrogative sentences use would in the first and second persons, and should in the third:

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NOTE. The interrogative form in the first person (Would I go? Would we go?) is not proper except in a repeated question, as stated in § 180, N.

Read aloud the following sentences (see § 361):

1. If he were my boy, he should have an education. 2. Would you be kind enough to assist him? Yes, I would. 3. If I were you, they should have the opportunity.

4. You should have the books at once if I could get them. 5. He intended that it should be a garden.

He changed his plans, that there should be no delay.

6. They should never be in want if I could help them. 7. I would advise you to wait. (Would shows friendly interest.) I should (§ 187) advise you to wait. (Should is simply future.) 8. Master, we would that thou shouldest do for us whatsoever we shall desire. THE BIBLE. (Exercise XIX, b, § 564; XX, b,

§ 565; XXI, § 566.)

190. Shall, should, of duty, etc. In questions of duty or propriety shall and should (with emphasis) are used in the first person as well as in the second and the third; this use should be distinguished from that of simple futurity (§§ 178, 187):

1. What shall I do to inherit eternal life? Thou shalt love the Lord thy God, etc. (Duty; compare a question and answer of simple futurity, in which shall has no emphasis: How shall I recognize him? You will know him by his dress.)

2. Should we not take off our hats? (Propriety.)

3. Should you (he) not have helped in this work? (Duty.)
4. Shall I go home now, sir? (Not 'Will'; § 180, N.)
5. Shouldn't they have gone to school yesterday?

191. Will, would, of determination, etc. Will or would is used in all three persons to denote determination (with emphasis) or customary action (sometimes with emphasis, as in Ex. 3):

1. I (You, He) will go in spite of everything. (Determination.) 2. I (You, He) would sit and read for hours. (Customary action.) 3. Cats will steal. (Customary action.)

4. They will eat almost to bursting.

192. Shall, etc., with glad, etc. When shall, should, will, and would are used to express simple futurity (§§ 178, 187), they may be followed by like, prefer, be inclined, be glad, be sorry, and so on (whether adjectives, verbs, or adverbs), to denote willingness (but see § 193):

1. I shall be willing to go. He and I shall be glad to go. I shall go gladly. I should like to go. (I would like to go' is incorrect; it means 'I should like to like to go', a repetition similar to 'audible to the ear'. So, also, I will be glad to go' is incorrect; § 413.)

2. Shall you and he be glad to go? Should you go gladly? Should you prefer to go? ('Would you prefer to go?' is incorrect; it means 'Should you like to like to go?' So, also, 'Will you be glad to go?' is incorrect.)

3. She will be eager to go. She would go eagerly.

4. Shall you be disappointed if I do not go? I shall indeed. 5. Shall you be happy there? Yes, I shall.

6. We should prefer this, and she would prefer it too.

193. Will, would, with gladly, etc. Will and would, when used to express willingness, promise, and the like (not simple futurity, as in § 192), may not be followed by adjectives or verbs of liking and so on (§ 192), but by adverbs only, to show the degree of willingness (but do not say will... willingly; § 413):

1. I shall (not 'will') be glad to go. I will go most gladly. 2. Shall you be willing to go? Will you go gladly?

3. If I (you, he) should be willing to go; if I (you, he) would go gladly; I would sooner starve (see § 244 and N.).

194. Shall, etc., in condition. In a conditional clause (introduced by if, whoever, etc., §§ 333, 342) shall or should is used in all three persons to denote simple futurity (§§ 178, 187); and will or would to denote willingness (§§ 180, 189):

1. If I (you, he) shall fail, the curse may come. See §§ 338, 339.

Even if I (you, he) should help them, they might not succeed.
Whoever shall try may succeed.

Wherever I (you, he) should go, they could follow. She intended to wait until I (you, he) should return. 2. If I (you, he) will only try, nothing is impossible.

If I (you, he) would only help her, she might succeed.
Whoever will try may succeed.

195. Shall, etc., in indirect quotation, etc. In indirect quotation or indirect question (§§ 176, 177, 77), when the verb of saying or asking is in the past or the past perfect tense, shall in a direct quotation is changed to the past should in the indirect quotation, and will is changed to the past would (shall is not changed to will, nor should to would):


1. "I shall go."

2. "Will you go?"

3." He shall go."


I say that I shall go.
I said that I should go.

You say that you shall go?

John said that he (John) should go.
I ask whether you will go.
I asked whether you would go.
We say that he shall go.
They said that he should go.

This rule holds good for all uses of shall, should, will, and would, except that when, in expressions denoting simple futurity, the second or the third person in the direct form becomes the first person in the indirect form, will is changed to shall, and would to should (since the first person requires shall or should to denote simple futurity):

1. "I (John) shall fall."

I (John) say that I shall fall

I said that I should fall.

You (John) said that you should fall.
He (John) said that he should fall.

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