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1. Each has his work in the world.

2. We have not done either of these things.

NOTE. In the first sentence each means anybody (nobody in particular). In the second sentence either means the one or the other (neither in particular).

102. Indefinite pronouns. The common indefinite pronouns are another (possessive another's), any, both, each, either, neither, none (now usually plural when used as a subject, the singular being expressed by no one or not one), one (possessive one's; plural ones, ones'), other (possessive other's; plural others, others'), some, such:

1. Each of us has his (not 'their'; § 120) faults. (See § 60.) 2. Let each of us try his (or her, if all are women) own method. 3. Neither of them has found his mistake. (See § 60.)

4. None of the men have come to the mill. (But, None of the music is new; There is none of it left.)

103. Indefinite adjectives. The indefinite words in § 102 often modify nouns; they are then indefinite adjectives (§ 116): 1. Any plan is better than no plan.

2. Some men can do almost anything.

104. Reciprocal pronouns. The phrases each other (possessive each other's) and one another (possessive one another's) denote an exchange of acts or feelings, and are called reciprocal pronouns. These phrases are often used interchangeably, but each other is more properly used of two persons or things (or of each two in a group), and one another of more than two; where there is no reciprocity (as in the fourth and fifth examples), one another must be used (do not use each other as a nominative):

1. Jack and I help each other.

2. Mary and Helen visited in each other's home. 3. Bear ye one another's burdens. THE BIBLE.

4. Bags of money were piled upon one another.


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5. In they all came, one after another. DICKENS. 6. Each learned what the other was doing. (Not 'They learned what each other was doing '.)

NOTE. The one . . . the other properly mean the former... the latter.

105. One, one's, etc. The possessive case of the indefinite pronoun one is one's (not his); the objective case is one (not him); and the reflexive (§ 109) is oneself (not himself). Care should be taken not to begin with one and change to he (his, etc.; see § 106):

1. One cannot be always studying one's works. ARNOLD.


2. What one wishes to have done, one (not 'he ') should do oneself (not himself '). (Compare Benjamin Franklin's " If you would have your work done, go; if not, send".)

3. Faulty: If one showed oneself so to one's townsmen, they might deride him. (Say 'If a man showed himself so to his townsmen, they might deride him '.)

4. Faulty: She never allowed one to eat his (not 'their') supper in peace. (Say 'She never allowed anybody to eat his supper in peace'.)

106. One, one's, etc., overworked. The indefinite pronoun one ($105) is a colorless, vague, and often clumsy substitute for the passive voice or for it, you, they (colloquial, § 380; see § 366, B, 2, b), we, I, people, somebody, a man, a woman, a person, or the like, and should generally be avoided. Its excessive use becomes a mannerism, and often leads to inelegant and ungrammatical sentences. If the information to be imparted offers a desirable opportunity, it may be made a matter of personal interest by using you, people (§ 417), a man, a woman, anybody, or the like; but if the information contains something disagreeable, it may be made less offensive by using I or we:

1. It might be imagined that they swam across. (Or, if not used to excess, ' One might imagine that they swam across '.)

2. It is possible to imagine such a condition.

3. It is disagreeable to miss a train. (Not 'One hates to', etc.) 4. It was not known how he fell. (Not 'One did not know', etc.) 5. They now make the voyage in five days. (Colloquial.) 6. We cannot be too careful.

7. We should not praise ourselves.

8. O that I might read the book of fate!

9. If it were said to us, we should resent it.

10. As I make my bed, so I must lie in it.

11. Such a vocabulary will enable you to read a newspaper understandingly, although you will come across many words the meaning of which you will have to guess at, as best you can, from the context.

107. The numeral one. The indefinite pronoun one (§ 105) should not be confused with the numeral adjective one. The numeral adjective one is used either as an adjective or as a noun. It is not followed by 'one', 'oneself', like the indefinite pronoun, but by he, she, or it, according to the context:

1. One man did not wait. He rose and seized his hat.
2. One of them sat sewing. She wore spectacles.
3. One of the plants had lost its leaves.

108. Any one, etc. The expressions any one, every one, no one, and some one are written as separate words when one is the numeral, and should be used when needed (as in 'any one of us'; 'every one of them'); but to avoid mannerism (§ 106) in the use of the indefinite pronouns 'any one' (or 'anyone'), ' every one' (or 'everyone '), ' no one', and 'some one' (or someone'), which often lack clearness and smoothness (§ 374), we may use anybody, everybody, nobody, somebody:

1. Any one (every one, no one, some one) of us has his faults. (Use this form of men, or of men and women together.)

2. Any one (every one, etc.) of us would be willing to sacrifice her personal comfort. (Use this of women.)

3. Anybody (everybody, nobody, somebody) is discontented with his (not 'their'; see §§ 118, N., 120, 60, Ex. 6) lot in life.


109. Intensive and reflexive pronoun. An intensive pronoun emphasizes a noun or another pronoun; a reflexive pronoun is used only as an object, to denote the same person or thing as the subject:

1. Polly herself amused the children. (Intensive.) 2. She amused the children herself. (Intensive.)

3. She amused herself with the children. (Reflexive.)

110. Intensive and reflexive pronouns. The intensive and reflexive pronouns are alike in form:

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Yourself is ordinarily used for thyself, just as you is used for thou (§ 59); but yourself, unlike you, is never used in addressing more than one person:

1. Harry, are you yourself sure of it? 2. Boys, are you yourselves sure of it?

111. Intensive pronoun used alone. An intensive pronoun is sometimes used in the predicate without a noun or another pronoun:

1. Richard is himself again. 2. The stranger was myself.

112. Personal pronoun as reflexive. After a preposition a personal pronoun is often used as a reflexive:

1. The woman took the boy with her.

2. The speaker disregarded those about him. (Exercise XIII, § 558.)


113. Adjective. An adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun:

1. Blue sky; red roof; tall tree; O poor me! (§ 318.)

2. This lamp; every town; five children; a (= any) ship.

NOTE. When an adjective modifies a noun directly (as, blue sky), it is called an attributive (or adherent) adjective; it usually precedes the noun. An attributive adjective may follow the noun and be separated from it by a comma, like a nonessential appositive (§ 50); it is then sometimes called an appositive adjective: An old house, dark and gloomy, rose before him'. A predicate adjective forms a part of the predicate (§ 158).

114. Adjective phrase and clause. A phrase or a clause (§§ 6, 7) may be used as an adjective; such a phrase is called an adjective phrase, and such a clause an adjective clause (§ 82): 1. She likes the red-haired boy. (Adjective.)

2. She likes the boy with the red hair. (Adjective phrase; § 282.) 3. She likes the boy who has the red hair. (Adjective clause.)

115. Essential and nonessential clause. The adjective clause is essential or nonessential, and is treated accordingly (§ 92).

116. Classification. Adjectives are of the following kinds: 1. Descriptive: Blue eyes; falling stars; African lions. 2. Possessive: His hat; Jane's pony (Jane's = of Jane, an adjective phrase denoting possession). (§ 69.)

3. Demonstrative: This picture is for you. (§ 72.)

4. Interrogative: What book have you? (§ 79.)

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