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balls; it is a simple matter for newspapers to display startling headlines which will inflame the populace to hatred for another nation; it demands no sacrifice for our legislators to sit in their comfortable leather chairs and vote to declare war. It is the young men of the land-vigorous, energetic, buoyant, enthusiastic, but not influential -who must go forth to war and lay down their lives, in order that a few very rich men may be made richer, and the rest of the people poorer. Is it really worth while?
The New Psychology
THERE is an admirable article on "The New Psychol
ogy and the Catholic Religion" by Cyril E. Hudson in the July number of The Pilgrim. This is the new quarterly review of Christian politics and religion which is edited by Dr. William Temple, Bishop of Manchester. It is published by Longmans, Green & Co.
The writer considers the bearing upon traditional Christian faith and practice of some of the principles of what is now being so widely talked about,-"the New Psychology." He takes up such principles of psychoanalysis as the Unconscious, Complexes, Repression, Libido, and Sublimation. It would be difficult to find anywhere in so short a space a more lucid summary of the main principles of the New Psychology. He takes a decidedly hopeful view of the compatibility of these findings with the practice of the Catholic Religion.
For example, in discussing Repression and Sublimation, he says that much spiritual impotence and despair are due to past sins unfaced, unrepented, and ignored. He shows that confession is merely the facing of an evil complex and regarding it as the hideous reality it is in the sight of God. Contrition and amendment may be looked upon as
the sublimation of a sinful desire until it becomes diverted into new, healthy, and useful channels. He narrates the interesting incident that after a recent discussion in Oxford on psychoanalysis, one of the audience-an Anglican dignitary-exclaimed, "We shall all have to set up confessionals, else everyone will be going to these doctors!"
At the close of the article the writer makes a somewhat gloomy prediction, without suggesting the grounds for his alarm: "I do not think it is possible to doubt that a great attack on the specifically Christian view of life is coming ---and coming soon-from psychoanalysis (in the philosophic, not the therapeutic, sense) and herd psychology." If this be true, it is desirable that Christian apologists should make a thorough study of the New Psychology, in order that they may be prepared to meet the attack when it comes.
The First Anglo-Catholic Priest's Convention
YEAR ago in July there was held in the Albert Hall, London, the first Anglo-Catholic Congress, which numbered 14,000 members. In the recent elections for Convocation the number of Anglo-Catholic Priests who were returned as successful candidates was quite without precedent,-in London alone the proportion was most striking. The unprecedented Anglo-Catholic Priests' Convention which took place at Oxford (under the presidency of the Bishop of the Diocese), on July 18th-22nd, promises to be as important in its effects on the Church of England as was its parent the Anglo-Catholic Congress.
At the moment of writing over 1,000 Bishops, Priests and Deacons have purchased membership tickets: they include representatives from Canada, U. S. A., South and Central Africa, India and Australia, in addition to many
priests from Scotland, Ireland and Wales (the last named numbering over 60).
It is an open secret that important developments are expected as a result of this historic gathering: these are to be discussed by the members at an extra meeting, which has been arranged for the morning of July 22nd, and which has for its agenda "The Practical Issues of the Convention." The general subject of the Convention is "Priestly Efficiency," and the particular subjects to be discussed are Intellectual, Practical, and Personal Efficiency.
A Grievance of the Laity
WE sympathize to a certain extent with the feeling of irritation displayed by some of the laity at the way some priests celebrate the Holy Eucharist. Still we must say that the laity are very difficult to please. One priest's voice is too loud to suit them, another's is too inaudible. One reads the service too rapidly, another too slowly. One is too oratorical, and another too monotonous in tone and inflection. Unless the ideal priest, a paragon of all the virtues, with a silvery voice and the face of an angel, happens to be the celebrant, their hearts are cold, their devotions unsatisfying, and they have a suspicion that their communions are invalid.
Obviously there is something wrong here, and the wrong is not all on the side of the clergy. Worshippers who are so dependent on the human elements of Eucharistic worship have surely not gotten hold of its inner core of divine reality. What does it mean to be present at mass? It means being present at the supreme moment on Calvary when our Saviour offered Himself for the sins of the world. The mass is not another sacrifice; it is the same sacrifice that was once offered for us by our great
High Priest. It is He who consecrates the bread and wine to be His Body and Blood and offers them to God as the one true and perfect Sacrifice. He is both Priest and Victim. The personality of the earthly priest is insignificant; it is covered up by the Eucharistic vestments which symbolize the divine Priest and His sacrificial acts. The earthly priest is merely the hand of the Body of Christ, the instrument or member which offers sacrifice. The worshippers ought not to give him a thought; they should think only of the invisible Priest who is acting through him. Otherwise their worship and their communions can mean but little to them.
If we cannot hear the words of the service, we can direct our thoughts to our unseen Lord and speak to Him. If we prefer to follow the words of the service, we can read them in the Prayer Book. That is one of the advantages of having a Prayer Book. If the priest speaks in so loud a voice that we cannot pray privately, we can join our hearts with his. If we are irritated by the quality or intonation of his voice, we can think of the sufferings of our Saviour upon the Cross.
Whatever we do, let us not ignore the presence of our best Friend who is standing invisibly in our midst and pleading for us before God. In union with His perfect Sacrifice, let us offer ourselves, our souls and bodies, to be a reasonable, holy, and living sacrifice to our heavenly Father.
The Lynching Record
E have received interesting information concerning lynchings for the first six months of this year from the Department of Records and Research of the Tuskegee Institute: From January 1 to July 1, 1921, there were 36 lynchings in the United States. This is 24 more than the
record for the first six months of 1920, and 7 more than for the first six months of 1919.
Of those lynched, 2 were whites and 34 were negroes. Two of the latter were women. Eleven of those put to death were charged with the crime of rape.
The states in which lynchings occurred and the number in each state are as follows: Alabama, 1; Arkansas, 4; Florida, 4; Georgia, 9; Kentucky, 1; Louisiana, 2; Mississippi, 10; Missouri, 1; North Carolina, 2; South Carolina, 1: Tennessee, 1.
There is no justification for lynching. There are due processes of law which should be followed in the case of every human being accused of crime, whether black or white, whether in the south or in the north. It is a fundamental principle of civilized society that everyone accused of crime should be given an opportunity to defend himself, and establish his innocence. If found guilty, he should be punished in the regular way by the constituted authorities. Any deviation from this course increases popular disrespect for law and order, and arouses bitter class hatreds that will sooner or later find the way to vengeance.
Attachment to Morning Prayer
THOSE of us who believe that the sacramental act of
worship which was instituted by our Saviour on the night of His betrayal should be the chief act of worship for all Christians on every Lord's Day are often perplexed that anyone should display a preference for Morning Prayer. It passes our comprehension that one who professes to love the Lord Jesus should be content to express one's worship and adoration Sunday after Sunday through Cranmer's somewhat clumsy adaptation of the Breviary offices of matins, prime, and lauds, rather than through the divinely ordained eucharistic memorial of the sacrifice of the Cross.