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loneliness and darkness. Could that pristine faith persist, could that sense of guardianship survive, we might walk amid a world of evil unstained and unharmed.

Still let them succour us; still let them fight,
Lord of angelic hosts, battling for right!

Another thought comes to us instinctively, in yearning for a wider observance of Michaelmas and for a deepened sense of its significance, a thought suggested by a fragmentary text: And the reapers are the angels. Life's garden may be in a rugged or an obscure spot. Perhaps the sowing is amid untoward circumstance and the tending beneath a relentless sun, and its upkeep beset by subtle enemies. But would we choose other than rare plants, could we realize that their fruit would be reaped by the angels? And would not toil be transformed, if we knew that shining wings were outspread over bent backs and that white hands were soothing thorn-torn wounds and glittering swords guarding the growthdivine aid, celestial companionship, unerring judgment in the garnering for those who labor in the fields of time unto the Lord of the eternal harvest.

As angels excel in ghostly strength, as they are unafraid in the white life of God's throne, as they are ordained a wonderful order to serve, may we by purity of heart approach angelic strength, by worship and contemplation see the King in His beauty, and in the consciousness of their succour serve God in our place as they serve Him in theirs.

Ad Universam Christi Plebem. London, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1921.

The Lambeth Appeal for Christian Unity has been issued in a Latin translation intended for the non-English speaking churches and denominations. As was to be expected from English scholarship, it is an excellent piece of Latinity. The appeal, as is well known, insists upon the terms of the Quadrilateral, and upon the necessity of Episcopal ordination for a valid ministry. Yet there are certain suggestions that give pause to a Catholic Churchman: e. g., the acceptance by our Bishops and other clergy of 'commissions" from denominations and the episcopal ordination of denominational ministers, without previous renunciation of their official capacity. We submit that these suggestions will meet with no favor from either Greece or Rome. Rather will they emphasize the doubt cast on our orders, quite brutally, by the Roman, and very politely but still unmistakably by the Greek Church. Nor will these suggestions or concessions have much force with the sectarian bodies, to whom the very idea of the sacerdotium is abhorrent. While containing much that is valuable and might serve as a basis of unity, the appeal contains much that, to our mind is impracticable and that, if carried into practice, would prove harmful to our own church without in the least promoting the cause of unity. We should like to see the appeal translated into Greek for the benefit of the Orthodox Eastern Church. F. C. H. W.

The Anglican Deaconess. By Oscar Hardman, B.D., pp. 32. London, Society of Promoting Christian Knowledge. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1921.

The Lambeth Conference of 1920 passed a series of Resolutions, Nos. 47-51, recommending the restoration of the Order of Deaconesses, as an order of the Church's ministry. This little pamphlet by one who is Warden of a Deaconess Institution is, therefore, timely. As such action may be proposed in our own General Convention, our clergy and laity ought to make themselves at least acquainted with the subject. We know of no brief treatise which could give them, as accurately as this pamphlet, all the needful information on the history of the female diaconate, the functions. of the deaconesses, and their training, as also suggestions for the ordination service. F. C. H. W.

Synodical Government. By the Rt. Rev. Dr. H. Lowther Clark, pp. 32. London, S. P. C. K. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1921.

The Archbishop of Victoria (Australia) has, in this pamphlet, given a most interesting account of the government of the Church in Australia. The Synodical System is very much like our own system of General Convention, Provincial Synod, and Diocesan Convention; and a clergyman going to that far-off continent would find himself quite at home. The method of filling parochial vacancies is perhaps, better than our own. The parish may nominate a vicar, through its parish board of nominators, elected at the annual parish meeting; but the bishop makes the appointment. In case a vacancy lasts six months, the bishop has full power to fill it. A parish must possess a brick or stone church and have an assured income of £250 and a vicarage or £300 without a vicarage. The vicar's tenure is for life; and he is removable only on charges. The Pension system is excellent. Every clergyman must be a member of the Provident Fund; and pays his own premium. The maximum annuity on retirement at the age of 70 is £150. This pamphlet is well worth careful reading, as it shows how one Church of our great Anglican Communion governs itself. F. C. H. W.

The Intention of His Soul. Essays for the untheologically minded. By Hubert L. Simpson, M.A. (Edin.) Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1921.

This is a book of sermons, cleverly disguised as essays for the sake of attracting readers who ordinarily do not read sermons or even listen to them. It is to be hoped they will be as successful in attracting the untheologically minded as they will undoubtedly be good for them if they do. Not only will they be good for the reader, they will be good to him. They are delightfully written in a charming style, rich in suggestion, packed with ideas, and soundly loyal to essential Christian faith, refreshingly free from any suggestion of theological controversy. They can be as cordially commended to the theologically minded as stimulating examples of how the other fellow can be persuaded of the same truth in different terms. It is the sort of preaching that one feels there is need of and that is successful in its purpose. Personally we have enjoyed them more than any sermons we have read or heard in a long time. L. G.

The Problem of the Pentateuch: A Solution by Archeological Methods. By Melvin Grove Kyle, D.D., LL.D. Bibliotheca Sacra Co., 1920.

Running through the first five books of the Bible, and elaborately interwoven, are several styles of expression and language so well marked and distinct that modern critics have, for the most part, agreed to consider them as several documents, pieced together to form a very complicated patch-work. Prof. Kyle believes that they are open to another and more natural explanation. He considers the whole as being primarily a body of laws, as, indeed, the Jews considered it, the narrative portions serving only as a background for the laws. He finds that these laws are of certain quite distinct kinds, and are intended for certain quite distinct uses, and that these kinds and uses of the laws call for just such differences in their manner of expression as we find in these interwoven styles of the Pentateuch. There are the "Judgments" of the Common Law, decisions handed down from the distant past, and reduced to terse, epigrammatic and poetic form for easy memorizing and ready reference. There are the "Statutes," special instructions in unfamiliar things, such as the Ceremonial Law, and for specialists; and these are in an elaborate descriptive style. And there are the four orations of Moses, forming the book of Deuteronomy, wherein he reviews the whole law in hortatory style. A division of the Pentateuch, according to these three kinds of laws contained in it, comes out almost exactly the same as a division according to what the documentary hypothesis calls the "JE," the "P" and the "D" documents. If this variety in the kinds and uses of the laws is sufficient to explain the variety of styles, the raison d'etre of the documentary hypothesis is removed, and it becomes again possible that the whole may have been written in the time of Moses, and by him or under his direction.

To the establishment of this thesis Professor Kyle brings a mind trained in archeological investigation to careful, scientific method; and the work has every appearance of scholarly thoroughness, fairness and caution. Every appearance, I say; for, of course, only a thorough Hebrew scholar, after long and careful sifting of the evidence that Professor Kyle presents, could pass upon the accuracy of his scholarship and the validity of his conclusions. However, to one not equipped for such definitive criticism, the book bears the hall-marks of sound, scientific method. The thesis is deduced from the presentation of great masses of evidence; and the conclusion seems to have been formed after the evidence, and not, in the familiar German fashion, beforehand.

It is to be hoped that competent scholars will soon check up Professor Kyle's work, for only in the consensus of scientific judgment can the nonspecialist place confidence. In the meantime it is encouraging to hope that our children may yet be allowed to have the Old Testament explained to them at something more near its face value than that dizzy German patchwork to which this generation is trying to become accustomed.

The work is marred by certain superficial crudities, such as the constant capitalization of KINDS and USES and other like catch words. And it is quite uncalled for to speak of "Archeological Methods” in the sub-title; for, although one chapter is devoted to Archeological Evidence concerning Penteteuchal times, the method of the book is that of any good scientific investigation, whether of archeology or biology or electricity.

The book should be read by the clergy, especially by any who are teaching the documentary theory in their church schools.

C. L. A.

David Hummell Greer-Eighth Bishop of New York. By Charles Lewis Slattery, New York. Longmans, Green & Co., 1921. pp. 328.

The Rector of Grace Church, New York, has in this volume given to church people a most readable as well as appreciative biography of one who was highly successful both as rector and as a bishop. We have here the portrait of a man, plain, simple, brave, and honest in his every day living, and deeply religious. Personally an Evangelical and-like all of his school -Low Church in his sympathies, he was altogether devoid of all partisan feelings. He was a great preacher and administrator; and these two functions absorbed his attention to such an extent that he had little interest in questions of ritual or ceremonial.

His life was free from financial worries, which fact left him at liberty to develop his intellectual life and his spiritual character unhampered. His intense honesty of purpose appeared again and again. Thus, in the very beginning of his ministry, when the study of modern science, especially of evolution, raised doubts in his mind, he resigned his parish and went abroad for a year with his wife. His doubts conquered, he returned home.

He now became rector of Grace Church, Providence, R. I., which parish he served for sixteen years. Thence he went to St. Bartholomew's Church, New York City. After a rectorship of sixteen years, he was in 1904, elected Bishop Coadjutor of New York; and, on the death of Bishop Potter, he became the diocesan, in 1908. For the next eleven years, he de

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