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They don't seem to shave or cut their hair, and there was a group there that might have appeared on the stage as pirates without touching up one hair! The train for Seoul was standing on the dock-cars much like our Pullmans. This railroad was built by the Russians and on a big scale, wide gauge, very unlike anything the Japanese would do; more comfortable from our point of view, but not for them, as they usually travel in a reclining position. As the train did not start for an hour, after securing seats and, thanks to Tominaga, we were the first people to have our passports examined, and so got choice places on the train-we walked up and down the wharf and studied the natives, which was really my occupation all day. We travelled from 9.50 a. m. to 7.50 p. m., through a bleak and barren country, mountains that were bare and seemed covered with slack not hard rock, most of the time along a sandy river bed; a river that Tomi says does a great deal of damage in flood; sometimes the valley was wide and then there were fairly good-sized fields under cultivation-rice fields. Oxen were being used for ploughing and to carry loads; bridges of the most primitive construction; a good many small villages of mud houses with untidy thatched roofs, very irregularly huddled together, hovels really, very hard to distinguish from the cowsheds; no streets. They looked more like African villages than anything I can recall. At sunset the villages seemed on fire because of the smoke hanging over them, pouring out from under the eaves and open door, no chimneys! Not one aesthetic element in the landscape; no shrines nor temples could we see; but the hills, where not laid out in rice terraces, were dotted with round mounds Tomi said were graves. At this season there was little green in the landscape, but when the sun was out and while the river was broad, the coloring was beautiful; hills a mauvish mole, river greenish blue, villages straw color and everywhere these whiteclad figures. They are a fairly big people sometimes rather majestic, only it takes a surplus of dignity to carry off the tiny horsehair hat. Occasionally one sees a man wearing a huge basket work hat, which Tomi said was a mourning hat, and we've learned today is worn only when mourning for one's father. Lighter grief is typified by wearing white or tan horsehair! While there was little variety in the scene it was all so new and so unbelievably primitive I never tired of looking from the window.
There was a missionary family on the train returning from furlough; we guessed them to be Lutherans. At several stations they were met by Korean Christians. When clean the dress was not unattractive. Some of the men wore light gray or tan coats and looked less like being in night shirts.
This hotel is run by the Japanese Government and is supposed to be one of the best in the Orient. We have a room with bath; the hotel is steam heated. There is really hot water and the table is good, so you see we are comfortable.
We had seen a notice of services at the Anglican Church"Holy Communion First Sunday of the Month." I decided Palm Sunday would surely be an exception and determined to find the church (which was next the British Consulate) and see what notice was up there. So at 9.30 the three of us in rikishas started off for the Consulate first of all. The church, a native sort of building, had the same notice, and while we were gazing at it "the pastor," as Tomi called him, appeared nearby. He was a priest in cassock and biretta, the Rev. Father Hunt, he told us in time.
Well, it was the greatest luck finding him. This is a truly Catholic mission. The Sisters of St. Peter have an orphanage and girls' hostel (boarding home for girls attending the Government High School). He quite warmed up to us in time (when he found that I was sympathetic). He offered at once to celebrate the Eucharist for us unless we'd care to attend the Korean service at eight, which we much preferred doing. He showed us where it would be held and just where we should kneel, etc. Then he took us all over the grounds, into his own house, a Korean one; into a native Christian's-I judge the sexton's; into the orphanage and Boys' and Girls' Hostels. They are all home on spring vacation now; no sisters were about, only native workers.
Then he took us to his office to show us a model of the cathedral they hope to build and photographs of their work in the country. He said their Bishop was expected next week. He had been at the Anglo-Catholic Congress at Lambeth and was coming back via the U. S. A., where he hoped to get funds. The Congress is giving them something from their great offering.
I can't tell you what a pleasure it was to see and hear all he had to say. It was just as unlike any work of ours (that I have seen) as it can be all native buildings. Father Hunt can hardly stand
up in his house and sleeps on the floor. Seemingly, money is very scarce, the place is almost squalid, but there must be tremendous devotion. Father Hunt told us that, strangely enough, the Koreans do not drink tea, but a light wine; and they are, he says, a nation of drunkards-one explanation of the pass in which they find themselves-but he loves them evidently; says many of them are true aristocrats. He gave us a lot of first-hand information and bade us farewell till the morrow.
Then, under Tomi's escort, we visited what remains of one of the royal palaces, none of it very good; and then an exhibition of Korean handicraft, much of it desperately expensive, alas! for much of it was lovely. I can't tell you how desolate this place looks. Only years of mis-government could lead to such squalor, and, of course, the Japanese have no interest in keeping up Korean historic monuments. We ended the morning by going to the Severance Hospital, a joint Presbyterian and Methodist American and Canadian Missionary Hospital. It is a medical school as well as a hospital. We ran into Mrs. H-, who is staying with Mrs. K—, wife of a Presbyterian missionary. We are asked to tea with them tomorrow night, so we shall certainly see all the varieties of mission work. One piece of luck was seeing in the doctor's office one of the great Korean Christians, known as the Grand Old Man of Korea, once secretary of their legation at Washington. He is a great patriot and has often been in prison. Once while there he found under his mat a Gospel according to St. John. Already a monotheist, he came out of prison a Christian. He is head of the department of religious work of the Y. M. C. A. here. A noble old figure, he is, too.
We met the head nurse, an American, formerly in Persia, where she had to leave because the altitude was too great. She has only been in Seoul three weeks. In some ways the hospital did not imprss me as being as well run as St. Luke's, Tokyo, while the buildings are better than the present St. Luke's. For instance, to save expense the charity patients are all fed from home-you can imagine what that would mean! They spoke with great respect of Dr. Teusler; said we had the only medical work in Japan. Other missions had all given up their hospitals and now saw, too late, what a great mistake that had been.
After breakfast Tomi took us out in a motor; first up the mountain side to the beginnings of a public park, where we got a really fine view; then out across the city into the country to see the
"Queen's Tomb." This is the tomb of the last Queen of Korea. She died some ten years ago. It was the crudest, most primitive looking mausoleum! Certainly Korean art has deteriorated! The art we had seen in the museum, mostly pottery taken from the tombs between the tenth and fourteenth centuries, seems to prove that their civilization was once much higher. This tomb is unbelievable, being so modern and, of course, like all things Korean, neglected. The son of this woman lives in Seoul and is the Prince Li whose museum and exhibition of Korean handicraft we had visited the day before. His son has been educated in Japan, married to a Japanese princess and lives in Tokyo. There is a very strong independence movement in Korea. Mrs. K- told us that this wearing of white so exclusively is part of it-a refusal to abandon Korean ways or to be assimilated.
American missionaries are in a difficult position, as you may imagine. All the newspapers out here speak as though war between America and Japan were inevitable! I suppose you have heard of Yap and the trouble about the cables? Well, you would think that Mr. Harding and his Cabinet sat up nights over that and nothing else. In spite of this talk (which I suppose is propaganda, certainly of a devilish kind) we have met with the greatest courtesy in Japan. It must be said they can't tell Americans and English apart-the subtle difference escapes them. I suppose it is the same type of difference which I can hardly detect between Chinese and Japanese, when dressed alike, say, in Honolulu. Now, Korea is praying for war between Japan and America as their best chance. I judge that the Protestant missionaries we met at Seoul are mostly anti-Japanese. Mr. H— had told us in Japan that it would be folly for them to encourage the Koreans to expect independence ever; but, then, he is pro-Japanese, seeing them at home, where undoubtedly they appear to the best advantage. Naturally the Christian Japanese understand and love America. I thought Mr. in Seoul was really indiscreet. He was hot about a recent outrage. The Sunday before a native pastor and his whole congregation had been arrested. A man in praying for Korea had invoked God to cast the devil out of the country. Mr. said the Japanese always take any reference to the devil as meaning themselves! (One advantage about a liturgy-when we speak of the devil it's clear whom we mean). The Japanese are handicapped by having
no sense of humor, which is a virtue both Koreans and Chinese do enjoy. The pastor was still in prison and one of the deacons-or was it the man who prayed?-had come to the hospital with marks on his body from the torture he had undergone. Baron-I can't give his name, never having gotten it straight-"the Grand Old Man," was recently interviewed about the independence movement. He had a lot of fun with the officials. They asked him if he knew who headed the committee? Yes, he did. And who was on it? Yes, he knew them all. Could and would he give the names? Assuredly. After getting their hopes up to fever pitch, he drew himself up and said: "The head of the movement is God Almighty and the whole Korean nation is on the committee."
We had the Sunday evening with Mrs. K-. She is a Wellesley girl, and a very sweet, pleasant young woman. Her husband is in charge of the Japanese work in Korea. They say the Japanese are much more receptive in Korea than at home, and, of course, it is immensely important work. Mr. H- and Mr. K― are off on a tour of inspection and Mrs. His staying with Mrs. K-, who has one 8-year-old boy, a sweet little fellow; nice to see an American child again! I quite enjoyed the evening with these intelligent, congenial women. The K's had been doing rural Korean work till just recently and she told us a good deal, many things of interest about them. She made one perfectly amazing remark. She had mentioned that her husband had been in charge of 53 mission stations. I said: "Of course many of these had native pastors." She replied: "Not many; we don't much like to ordain Koreans. Our experience had been that the most successful stations were those without pastors. It made the people more self-reliant. Of course, they could not have the sacrament except when Mr. K― came."
Leaving out of consideration that last sentence (and the fact that they evidently aren't picking the right type of men for ministers), what kind of an idea of a church have they? I really was speechless, so I only murmured: "Strange, it does not work well at home." And she replied: "Well, it does here!"
I am so glad to have seen this other work besides our own, and to have seen the type of people who are doing it. Like us, they have both kinds, crude and cultivated. I wonder how Mr. H- would have reacted to that Mass Sunday morning-if he would have felt the reverence and reality? I asked what made Korean work promising, what there was to build on; and they said their immense