Imágenes de páginas

rally means one who in return for a pension or other benefits engages to pray for the welfare of his benefactor. Cf.

"If ever danger do environ thee,

Commend thy grievance to my holy prayers,

For I will be thy beadsman, Valentine."

SHAKSPERE, Two Gentlemen of Verona, I. 1. 16. The meaning of a little ball for bead has arisen from little balls being pierced and strung, and then used to help the memory in counting the prayers or beads recited. The string of little balls was called a rosary. This last means literally a rosebed, then a collection of the flowers or fine passages of an author, then a series of prayers, the string of beads used when reciting them. Told counted. Cf. "I may tell all my bones." (Psalm xxii. 12.) "King Solomon. sacrificed sheep and oxen which could not be told nor numbered for multitude." (II. Chron. v. 6.) Notice our expression "so many all told," i.e. counted.

P. 33, 1. 8. Without a death i.e. his breath or soul seemed flying up to heaven without waiting for his death.

P. 34, 11. 15, 16. The carved figures on the tombs seemed as if they were imprisoned in purgatory. These figures were of knights and ladies in the attitudes of prayer, but the places they prayed in, their oratories, were, of course, silent. P. 34, 1. 17. Fails faints, dies. Cf.

"The strength of gods

And this empyreal substance cannot fail."

See also Enone, 1. 124.

MILTON, Paradise Lost, i. 116.


P. 34, 1. 21. Flatter'd to tears filled him with the anticipation of joys which were not to be, stirred him with hopes which could never be satisfied, excited such emotion that he wept. As Leigh Hunt remarks, the verb is admirably used here. Cf.


Despair and hope makes thee ridiculous;

The one doth flatter thee with thoughts unlikely."

P. 34, 1. 26. himself in this life to come.

SHAKSPERE, Venus and Adonis, 989. His soul's reprieve. He hoped by punishing life to save his soul from punishment in the

P. 34, 1. 31. Chide to make a loud shrill clamour, to scold, to quarrel. Here it has the first meaning. Shakspere uses the word to denote the cry of a pack of hounds, the noise of the sea, of a flood, &c.

P. 34, 1. 32. Level = laid smooth, extending flat. The floors in those days were covered with rushes instead of carpets, and these had been smoothed; but the adjective is meant to

convey an idea of extent as well as smoothness. We cannot get an idea of the levelness of a surface without seeing a fairly large portion of it; and the term level is therefore as a rule only applied to fairly large areas. From these two causes -from the nature of things and from use and habit-the idea of extent has become connected with level. We shall constantly have to notice Keats's use of words with this acquired or imaginative meaning.

P. 34, 1. 37. Argent = glittering or gleaming like silver. Revelry is put for revellers, just as minstrelsy for minstrels

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COLERIDGE, Ancient Mariner, 35.

P. 34, 1. 39. Fairily in the manner of fairies.


P. 34, 1. 40. Triumphs = public shows or exhibitions such as masques, pageants, processions. Cf.

"Where throngs of knights and barons bold
In weeds of peace high triumphs hold.”

MILTON, L'Allegro, 120.

Bacon, in Essay XLV., speaks of one side of the palace being "for feasts and triumphs, and the other for dwelling.'

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P. 34, 1. 43. Brooded. To brood to sit upon or cover in order to breed or hatch, to cover as with wings, to linger over in thought.

P. 35, 1. 52. Supine = lying on the back. See introduction to the poem, p. 90.

P. 35, 1. 56. Yearning. To yearn to desire eagerly, to be stirred with painful emotions. Cf. "For Falstaff he is dead, and we must yearn therefore." (Hen. V. ii. 3-6.) Halliwell, in his Dictionary of Provincial and Archaic Words, gives "yearne = to give tongue, a hunting term, applied to hounds when they open on the game."

P. 35, 1. 60. Tiptoe stepping quietly; or perhaps eager, as in "In every new attempt expectation is on tiptoe to see whether there is not some improvement." (Knox, Winter Evenings, i.) To go tiptoe was also a phrase for walking foppishly and affectedly. Cf. "To go tiptoe before the streets be foul" (Two Noble Kinsmen, i. 2. 62), where Palamon is passing a general ridicule on such affectations.


P. 35, 1. 64. Regardless which did not really see any. thing.


P. 35, 1. 70. Hoodwink'd with faery fancy blinded with fancies which belonged to fairy-land. Hoodwink'd having one's eyes winked or closed with a hood. Faery = fairy-land.


"But listen, and I shall you tell
A chance in fairy that befell."

DRAYTON, Nymphidia.

All-amortaltogether dead to external things, her perceptions of external things all deadened. Cf.

"Now I am all amort, as if I had lain
Three days in my grave already."

MASSINGER, Parliament of Love, iv. 5. 36.

P. 35, 1. 71. Her lambs. St. Agnes is generally represented with an attendant lamb. The Latin for lamb is agnus, and this may have suggested the idea; or, as is still more likely, as the emblem of maiden purity she may have been represented as a bride of the Lamb.

P. 35, 77. Buttress'd from moonlight = hidden by the buttress from the moonlight.

P. 36, 1. 90. Beldame = literally fair lady, a French term of respect (cf. beausire, bellemère, &c.) chiefly applied to old people; hence it means a grandmother (as in Shakspere sometimes), an old woman, an old hag.

P. 36, 1. 105. Gossip-god-sibb = god-relationship-a relation in a religious sense to the parents of a child (i.e. the child's godfather or godmother), a familiar acquaintance, one who brings and bears the news, idle talk. Here the meaning is that of a familiar female friend. Cf. "What ho! Gossip Ford!" (Merry Wives, iv. 2. 9.) It is interesting to notice that in the Creole French of the West Indies intimate female friends address one another as "Macoumé," i.e. ma commère ; while commère has in European French just the same history as gossip.


P. 36, 1. 111. Well-a-day well-a-way = A.S. wá-lá-wá


P. 36, 1. 115. Brand, in his Popular Antiquities, quotes from the Translation of Naogeorgus:

"For in St. Agnes' church upon this day while masse they sing,
Two lambes as white as snowe the nonnes do yearely use to bring:
And when the Agnus chaunted is upon the aulter hie,

(For in this thing there hidden is a solemne mysterie)

They offer them. The servants of the pope, when this is done,

Do put them into pasture good till shearing time be come.

Then other wooll they mingle with these holy fleeces twaine,

Wherof, being sponne and drest, are made the pals of passing gaine."

In another poem which is also quoted, St. Agnes' Shrine, we are told that the pope, after consecrating the lambs, "To chaste nuns he consigns them, instead of their dams."

P. 36, 1. 120. Witch's sieve. Cf. Macbeth, i. 3. 8, where. one of the witches says, "In a sieve I'll thither sail." To

make a sieve hold or keep out water was supposed to be a common trick of witches.


P. 36, 1. 121. Liege-lord of all the Elves and Fays = Obe-
See Midsummer Night's Dream.

P. 36, l. 126.

P. 37, 1. 127.

Mickle much.

"She laughs feebly as she stands there in the faint moonlight."

P. 37, 1. 129. Urchin literally, a hedgehog, but commonly, as here, a jocose name for a child. The old crone tantalises the child, as those who are fond of children are wont to do for the sake of the "sweet recoil of love."

P. 37, 1. 133. Brook. Keats is extremely given to using words in new or unusual ways-not always with success, or sufficient care. Here he evidently takes brook as an equivaSee 1. 150.

lent to restrain. P. 37, 1. 135.


In lap of legend old soothed to sleep by the lulling influence of old legends, as a child in the lap of its nurse.

P. 37, 1. 136. "A thought came suddenly flushing his brow with the colour of a full-blown rose, &c."

P. 37, 1. 138. Made purple riot = made his purple blood stir violently.

P. 37, 1. 152.

Horrid shout a shout that shall startle

them and make their hair stand on end. Cf.

"He would drown the stage with tears, And cleave the general ear with horrid speech."

SHAKSPERE, Hamlet, ii. 2. 588.

"The wakeful trump of doom must thunder through the deep With such a horrid clang.

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MILTON, Ode Nat., 156.

P. 37, 1. 156. Passing-bell the bell which was tolled when any Christian was on the point of death, originally with the idea, no doubt, of frightening away the demons who might be waiting for the soul. See Brand's Popular Antiquities, where I find quoted from Wheatly's Illustration of the Liturgy the following: "Our Church, in imitation of the saints in former ages, calls on the minister and others who are at hand to assist their brother in his last extremity. In order to this, she directs that when any one is passing out of this life a bell should be tolled, &c."

P. 37, 1. 162. [Compare tide, tidings, tides, tidy, betide, and show how their meanings all spring from one common origin.]

P. 38, 1. 169. Pale enchantment = enchantment which made her pale (see note, The Prisoner of Chillon, 1. 369); or ghostly enchantment.

P. 38, 1. 171. Since Merlin, &c. Merlin was the most famous enchanter of old English legends. See Morte d'Arthur, 1. 23. According to Keats' version of his end the Devil had his soul in return for all the power and knowledge he had given him. The common version is that his lady-love found out from him how to weave a circle of enchantment, and forthwith imprisoned him in a tree for ever. This happened in the forest of Brocheliande, while

"ever overhead

Bellow'd the tempest, and the rotten branch
Snapt in the rushing of the river-rain
Above them."

TENNYSON, Merlin and Vivien.

P. 38, 1. 173. Cates delicacies, derived from NormanFrench acater to buy. Cf. cater. Compare


"I had rather live

With cheese and garlic in a windmill, far,
Than live on cates and have him talk to me.

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SHAKSPERE, I. Henry IV. iii. 1. 163.

P. 38, 1. 175. Lute a stringed instrument of music like

a guitar.
P. 38, 1. 180.
P. 38, 1. 185.
in the dark.
P. 38, 1. 193.
mission. Cf.-


"May I never rise again from the dead." Dim espial-being caught sight of unawares

A mission'd spirit = a spirit going on a
"His (God's) state

Is kingly; thousands at his bidding speed,
And post o'er land and ocean without rest."

MILTON, Sonnet on his Blindness.

P. 38, 1. 198. Fray'd and fled = startled and put to flight. Cf. "She does so blush and fetches her wind so short, as if she were fray'd with a spirit." (Troil. and Cres. iii. 2. 32.) The use of a verb usually neuter as transitive is not uncom⚫ mon in English. With the transitive use of the neuter verb

fled, compare- -"He might have retired his power " (Rich.

II. ii. 2. 46); "God doth not shine honour upon all men equally" (Bacon, Essay 45).

P. 38, 1. 202. Visions wide = remote, vague, indefinite visions. As she stood panting in the pale moonlight she seemed a spirit of the air or some dim vision. See note 11. 32. 133, and 335.

P. 38, 1. 205.

P. 39, 1. 212.

Balmy. See note, 1. 32.
Innumerable of stains


not to be counted

in its stains.

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