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the decline. 3. The rest soon thronged the dancing-room, an apartment which partook of the simplicity of the time and of the country. 4. I was very much pleased to observe on one side 'the hearty and sincere welcome with which Sir Roger received Will Wimble, and on the other, the secret joy which his guest discovered at sight of the good old knight. 5. The Magians addressed their prayers and hymns to the Deity in what they conceived to be his residence, the sun. They reverenced this luminary as being his abode. 6. Here a British frigate was lost, in consequence of having struck a rock, the blow causing the ship to fill and founder very suddenly. 7. Amidst the cares of state the King retained his passion for music, for reading, for writing, for literary society. To these amusements he devoted much time. 8. The sun was now resting his huge disc upon the edge of the level ocean. The distant sea reflected the dazzling and level beams of the descending luminary. 9. In the spring of 399 an event happened of paramount interest to the intellectual public of Greece as well as to philosophy generally-the trial, condemnation, and execution of Sokratês. Before I recount that memorable incident, &c. 10. This curious design is the labour of many a day, fashioned by the hand of a recluse. I bought it of a nun in France, who passed years in toil upon the conceit, which is of more value than the material. The meek daughter of solitude wept when she parted with the fabric, for, in her eyes, it had the tie of association and habit. A companion might be lost to one who lives in the confusion of the world, and it should not cause more real sorrow than parting from the product of her needle gave that mild resident of the cloisters.


The pupil will gather more examples in the course of his reading, and in every case he will mark the force of the substitution.

3. CLASS NOUN and COLLECTIVE NOUN interchanged.

Class Noun replaced by Collective Noun. 8. The peasants maintain their independence' ='The peasantry maintain their independence.' 'The horsemen and the footmen' may be spoken of as 'the cavalry and the infantry.'


The pupil will make changes, as in the examples now given.

1. The landlord was welcomed by his tenants. 2. The British depend greatly on their ships of war.

3. The sailors mutinied. 5. He does not care

4. He rejoiced in all the good of all men.

for the opinions of his neighbours. 6. A murmur ran through the persons assembled. 7. He feared to face his hearers. 8. Silence was said to be an ornament to women. 9. The nobles oppressed the peasants. 10. Our descendants will judge him more justly than his constituents have done.

Collective Noun replaced by Class Noun.

9. The whole parish followed the corpse with heavy hearts.' This might be given as All the parishioners followed.'

'A Commission will be appointed'=' Commissioners will be appointed.'


Similar changes are to be made.

1. We saw a considerable number of shipping in the roadstead. 2. The council were undecided. 3. The new House of Commons was more temperate. 4. The fox visits the poultry. 5. I love to see the whole village merry in my great hall. 6. He would not receive the deputation. 7. The whole nation was in arms. 8. Are the Ministry or the Opposition the abler men? 9. The army was scarcely less disaffected than the clergy or the gentry. 10. During the following century, the ranks of the nobility were largely recruited from among the gentry.

4. CLASS NOUN and ABSTRACT NOUN interchanged.

Class Noun replaced by Abstract Noun.

10. A careless person is to be reproved,' or Careless people (or persons) are to be reproved,' may also be expressed thus: Carelessness is to be reproved.'


1. He has repented of his foolish actions. 2. Diligent boys should be encouraged. 3. They rejoiced in my adverse circumstances. 4. Young men are often rash. 5. Children are sharpeyed. 6. Tyrants cannot be endured. 7. Fret not thyself because of evil-doers. 8. He liveth under the shady trees. 9. The artist imitates natural objects. 10. The Lord will abhor the bloody and deceitful man.

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Abstract Noun replaced by Class Noun.

11. They admire valour' may be given as 'They admire valiant men' or 'valiant deeds.'


1. Virtue is its own reward. 2. Good men hate injustice. 3. Hypocrisy is contemptible. 4. Industry is to be commended. 5. Charity covereth a multitude of sins. 6. They had a visit from royalty. 7. The Lord loveth righteousness. 8. They speak vanity every one with his neighbour. 9. War desolates a country. 10. Wisdom is better than strength.

II. NOUN replaced by PRONOUN.

12. The PRONOUNS form a small class of words, and they are continually recurring. As far back as we remember, we have used them in almost every sentence we have spoken or written. We are thus very apt to get into the habit of slipping over most of them with unconscious attention.

A statement abounding in the less difficult pronominal usages may be readily understood and competently acted on, while yet the pupil may be utterly unable to tell in words the force of the individual pronouns. This understanding of language is altogether mechanical, a thing of use and wont, sufficient (it may be) for simple practical purposes in everyday life; but such knowledge cannot be accepted as knowledge of grammar.

In order to bring into due prominence the full power and importance of the pronouns, the simplest and most effective plan is to try to get on without them. Accordingly, in the following series of examples and exercises, the noun is repeated in place of the expected pronoun. The sentences thus formed are soon found to be unnecessarily explicit and intolerably clumsy. The pupil, however, always giving the pronoun substitution, is made to feel by the decided force of contrast the relief accompanying the change. By this means he also becomes intimately acquainted with the precise function of

individual pronouns. pronouns And, moreover, there grows up gradually in his mind a surer power of weighing the advantage that may be gained on special occasions by the retention of the noun.

Nouns in the possessive case will call into action the possessives of pronouns, which are classified as Adjectives. In practice, all possessive forms are really adjectives. Still it has been deemed advisable to notice them in this place.

This Division should be read simultaneously with the converse forms in 1148-73.


Substitution of I, we; thou, you, ye.

13. The speaker wishes the person (or persons) addressed to go with the speaker and his companions.' Instead of this clumsy form, we say 'I wish you to go with us.'

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Do as the person speaking tells the spoken to'='Do as I tell you.'


The representation of the First and Second Persons by names in the Third Person does not give a full and satisfactory equivalence. In some cases the form may even prove misleading.


Ohange the words in italics, as in the examples given.

1. The boy speaking is taller than the boy spoken to. 2. The speaker's plan is not denial: it is the truth the speaker has said, and the speaker persists in that. 3. While the reader (=the speaker) is reading, the hearers should be listening to what the reader reads. 4. There is no terror, Cassius, in Cassius's threats. 5. The Bishops replied to the King:- The King's Majesty acquits the Bishops; and the Bishops are satisfied.' 6. Henry replied:'Gentlemen of the city, Henry has not studied enough to be able to speak as the-gentlemen-of-the-city do, but Henry assures thegentlemen-of-the-city that if Henry does not speak so well, Henry will act better.' 7. Joseph said to the Baker:-'Within three days shall Pharaoh lift up the baker's (thy) head from off the baker, and shall hang the baker on a tree; and the birds shall eat the baker's flesh from off the baker.'


And Enid ask'd, amazed,

'If Enid errs, let Enid learn her fault.'



1. Rochester said to Barillon:-' Rochester tells Barillon that the King will not dismiss Rochester, and Rochester will not resign. Rochester knows the King; the King knows Rochester; and Rochester fears nobody.' 2. As soon as the speaker and the speaker's friend entered the grounds, the-speaker-and-his-friend were stopped. 3. The-speaker-and-his-fellow-passengers were nearly wrecked during a fog. 4. The King (we) pledges the King's royal word that the King will uphold the King's just claims. 5. The author (we) will not defend the conduct of the author's hero in this matter. 6. The reviewer's (our) readers will probably infer from what the reviewer has said, that this book has disappointed the reviewer. 7. This is the way the person addressed always damps the speaker's girls and the speaker when the-speaker-and-her-girls are in good spirits. 8. Cassius speaks to Brutus:

Cassius was born free as Cæsar; so was Brutus:

[can both Brutus-and-Cassius both have fed as well; and Brutus-and-Cassius Endure the winter's cold as well as he.


The masculine pronoun he for names of Persons.

14. A messenger, sent to David, advised David to hide David from David's enemies.' It is felt to be unpleasant as well as unnecessary to repeat the name. Say: advised him to hide himself from his



1. An Englishman's house is an Englishman's castle. 2. William gained William's crown by force. 3. The gambler ruined the gambler and the gambler's friend. 4. Robert the Bruce wished to make Robert the Bruce king of Scotland. By perseverance Robert the Bruce succeeded in Robert the Bruce's attempt. 5. The boy fell on the boy's arm, and required the boy's companion to help the boy to rise. The boy blamed the boy for the boy's carelessness. 6. Cassius from bondage will deliver Cassius. 7. The knight spurred the knight's steed, and couched the knight's lance. 8. I have a partner, and my partner should receive my partner's share.

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The masculine demonstrative he for names of Animals. 15. The lion shook the lion's shaggy mane; lion was angry.' Say, more lightly: The lion shook his shaggy mane; he was angry.'

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