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splendour': 'The splendour of the prelate now rivalled the splendour of the king.'

The note under § 27 should be steadily kept in view.

EXERCISE 61.

1. The number of the metals is much larger than that of the non-metals. 2. Richard's title to the throne was inferior to that of the young prince. 3. Their morals were probably purer than those of any other state in Greece. 4. The boy lay in the lonely chamber next to that occupied by the priest. 5. From Charles neither the remains of his mother nor those of his grandmother could draw any sign of sensibility. 6. Henry's early acts, like those of most usurpers, were intended to please the people. 7. His temper was not that of a persecutor. 8. This plant bears handsome purple flowers larger than those of the potato.

9. The most triumphant death is that of the martyr; the most awful, that of the martyred patriot; the most splendid, that of the hero in the hour of victory. 10. We heard notes resembling those of the blackbird and the robin. 11. Many of the leaves had fallen off, and those that were left were brown and half-shrivelled. 12. The legislative merits of Edward are greater than those of Alfred. 13. Henry VIII.'s state papers and letters will bear comparison with those of Wolsey or of Cromwell. 14. His speech differed little from that of the people around him. 15. The influence of Philip on the continent was as great as that exerted by Napoleon. 16. The milk of the milk-tree is used for glue, and is said to be as durable as that made use of by carpenters. 17. The manner of Addison is as remote from that of Swift as from that of Voltaire. 18. What spectacle is more august than

that of a great king in exile?

Noun for one and they, indefinite.

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63. One should be careful of one's health '= 'People (in general) should be careful of their health.'

The meaning is that every person should be careful; but no particular person is selected as the example.

They say the Emperor is ill'=' People say the Emperor is ill.' The pronoun is much to be preferred. They' means people generally,-whoever speaks on the subject.

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'The Emperor is said to be ill' is more suitable for the

graver kinds of composition. So also is the other form-'It is said that the Emperor is ill.'

EXERCISE 62.

1. One should always conciliate. 2. Here one must advance cautiously. 3. One must control one's feelings. 4. One wholly forgets the danger one is in, and thinks only of the effects of one's own bullets. 5. These are trifles that one soon gets used to; and in fact one would hardly think oneself in the tropics without them. 6. When one has seen the dreadful wounds of one's comrades, one feels doubly thankful for having escaped. 7. Let me tell you that three or four inches over one's calculation makes a great hole in one's profits; especially when one has a family to provide for, Sir. 8. Thou canst tell why one's nose stands in the

middle of one's face?

9. They say blood will have blood. 10. For this, they say, you spirits oft walk in death. 11. They say that he liked to be first in his company. 12. They say that war has been declared. 13. They say that the world is round, which is my own opinion. 14. They say, moreover, that the world turns round, which is no doubt true. 15. And the tide, they say, tarrieth for no man. 16. At lovers' perjuries, they say, Jove laughs.

Noun for one (numeral) and none.

64. This view is the only true one.' 'One' saves the repetition of 'view': 'the only true view.'

'He asked for letters, but he got none.' 'None' stands for 'no letters': 'he got no letters.'

EXERCISE 63.

1. The former target was now removed, and a fresh one placed in its room. 2. Shells were tolerably plentiful, and we added to our stock some new ones. 3. Tame elephants assist the hunter to secure wild ones. 4. Those apples are not so ripe as the ones we got yesterday. 5. The struggle had been a long and severe one. 6. Nor are the immunities of sex the only ones that she may rightfully plead. 7. Carnivorous fish are not less delicate eating than herbivorous ones. 8. The barrier of birth is one that cannot be passed.

9. No one took note of me. 10. Whose hand sped the shaft none can tell. 11. Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none. 12. No one knows better than he. 13. I shall speak daggers to

her, but use none. 14. He had none of the qualities of a great prince. 15. He expected some praise, but he got none.

16.

Three great ones of the city,

In personal suit to make me his lieutenant,
Oft capp'd to him.

Noun for either, neither, both, other.

65. 'Will you take the apple or the orange? I will take either.' That is I will take the apple or (I will take) the orange'; 'I will take whichever of the two you choose to give me.' Either' isthe one or the other, but not more than one.

'I will take neither,' means 'I will not take the apple and (I will) not (take) the orange. ' Neither' is not the one and not the other.

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'I will take both' means 'I will take the apple and also the orange. Both' is the one and the other.

'I do not like these pens; show me others';— 'other pens.

EXERCISE 64.

1. Do you prefer the books or the desk? You may have either. 2. The ass had sought him as much as he had sought the ass, and neither had scarce eaten or drunk till they met. 3. My father loves his own countrymen, and he loves the British; so, loving both, he takes sides with neither. 4. He afterwards showed me a wisp of hay, and a fetlock full of oats; but I shook my head to signify that neither of these was food for me. 5. Bring me a pencil or a pen; either will do. 6. He did not know the time or the place of his birth; when asked both, he could tell neither. 7. Neither of us has sought this meeting.

8. The crow doth sing as sweetly as the lark

When neither is attended.

9. This fancy, like others of my caprices, must have its way. 10. He works hard, and so do the others. 11. My friend and his brother have just arrived; I recognised both, though it is long since I saw either of them. 12. Jonathan and David loved each other. Saul was angry with them both. 13. Do the work yourself, instead of leaving it to others.

14. There was no want of sense or of spirit, for she had given abundant proof of both. 15. As to the decision of civil causes, or proceedings against criminals, their precedents are so few that they have little reason to boast of any extraordinary skill in either.

Noun for such and so.

66. By treating the Yorkists as enemies, he soon rendered them such.' 'Such' refers to 'enemies': 'he soon rendered them enemies.' 'He is our subject, Mowbray; so art thou.' That is, thou (too) art our subject.'

Literally-thou art in that state or condition.'

EXERCISE 65.

1. This edifice, if such it could be called, was of a singular construction. 2. The sisters, for such the resemblance between the younger females denoted them to be, were in all the pride of youth. 3. It seemed as if the stranger, for such the vessel must needs be, was recklessly approaching a dangerous surf. 4. He acted like a gentleman, and we treated him as such. 5. There is no career in the country for scholars as such. 6. The Maid of Arc resembled, in Schiller's view, the Iphigenia of the Greeks; and as such, in some respects, he has treated her. 7. With him, truth, or what seemed such, was an indispensable requisite. 8. I had endured hardships, it is true; my whole life had been a series of such.

9. I have often found you my enemy, and am well acquainted with the occasion of your being so. 10. The free and peaceful mountaineer is to become a shedder of blood: woe to them that have made him so. 11. While the bailiff (for so he was) spoke thus, his followers surrounded their prisoner. 12. England, now a Commonwealth, continued so for more than eleven years.

3. RELATIVE PRONOUN replaced by NOUN.

67. The remarks already made under § 32 are applicable here from the opposite point of view. The relatives who,' which,' 'whose,' taken in the co-ordinating sense, and also what,' are to be resolved, in the first instance, into the proper demonstrative pronouns with or without the conjunction. This step brings forward by anticipation an interchange that would find its regular place at § 79. The next process is to replace the demonstrative pronoun by the noun referred to.

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When the relative is used in the restrictive sense, the noun cannot be repeated to take its place. We might indeed disrupt and upheave a sentence in this fashion: He is the tallest man that I know' might become 'I know (tall) men, and of these (tall) men he is the tallest.' But the advantage of this is not obvious. The pupil will be content simply to point out the word that the relative refers to.

As further exercises, there may occasionally be substituted for the repeated noun a synonym or a more general name.

Noun for who, co-ordinating.

68. William drove into exile the rebellious prelate, who thereupon sailed for Normandy.' The force of who' is twofold: it connects the two statements, and it points to the individual just mentioned. Leaving out 'who', we might say- and the rebellious prelate thereupon sailed.'

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Instead of repeating the noun, and the rebellious prelate,' we may use the appropriate demonstrative pronoun, and he': and he thereupon sailed.'

Also, a more general name or a synonym may be used: 'and that haughty dignitary, churchman, &c.'

Sometimes another connecting word may be preferable to 'and': but, for, yet, though, &c. And in place of 'he,' 'him,' there will sometimes be required-she, her, they, them, these, &c.

EXERCISE 66.

1. The rebels were defeated by the Archbishop, who was acting as Regent. 2. The prince, who is an excellent horseman, kept his seat. 3. My people, who had long been discontented, now became openly mutinous. 4. His mother, from whom he derived all his right, was still alive. 5. The gates of the city were shut against the king, who had demanded admission. 6. Caradoc was king of the Silurians, who lived in South Wales. 7. He was taken before the Emperor, who received him kindly. 8. After the death of Æthelflæd, who was her brother's close ally, the separate existence of Mercia came to an end. 9. The very next village is famous for the contentions of the parson and the squire, who live in a perpetual state of war. 10. He had three children, all of whom died in infancy. 11. Our loss amounted to five thousand men, among whom were many officers

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