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of the senate or courts of justice, fourteen churches, fourteen palaces, and four thousand three hundred and eighty-eight houses, which, for their size or beauty, deserved to be distinguished from the multitude of plebeian habitations.

4 The populousness of his favoured city was the next and 5 most serious object of the attention of its founder. In the dark ages which succeeded the translation of the empire, the remote and the immediate consequences of that memorable event were strangely confounded by the vanity of the Greeks 6 and the credulity of the Latins. It was asserted and believed that all the noble families of Rome, the senate, and the equestrian order, with their innumerable attendants, had followed their emperor to the banks of the Propontis; that a spurious race of strangers and plebeians was left to possess the solitude of the ancient capital; and that the lands of Italy, long since converted into gardens, were at once de7 prived of cultivation and inhabitants. In the course of this history such exaggerations will be reduced to their just value; yet, since the growth of Constantinople cannot be ascribed to the general increase of mankind and of industry, it must be admitted that this artificial colony was raised at 8 the expense of the ancient cities of the empire. Many opulent senators of Rome and of the eastern provinces were probably invited by Constantine to adopt for their country the fortunate spot which he had chosen for his own residence. 9 The invitations of a master are scarcely to be distinguished from commands, and the liberality of the emperor obtained 10 a ready and cheerful obedience. He bestowed on his favourites the palaces which he had built in the several quarters of the city, assigned them lands and pensions for the support of their dignity, and alienated the demesnes of Pontus and Asia to grant hereditary estates by the easy tenure of main11 taining a house in the capital. But these encouragements and obligations soon became superfluous, and were gradually 12 abolished. In less than a century Constantinople disputed with Rome itself the pre-eminence of riches and 13 numbers. New piles of buildings, crowded together with

too little regard to health or convenience, scarcely allowed the intervals of narrow streets for the perpetual throng of 14 men, of horses, and of carriages. The allotted space of ground was insufficient to contain the increasing people, and the additional foundations, which on either side were advanced into the sea, might alone have composed a very considerable city.-GIBBON, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.



The timariots of the Othoman empire, like the feudal nobility of Europe, required a servile race to cultivate the

2 land. Difference of religion in Turkey created the distinction of rank which pride of birth perpetuated in feudal 3 Europe. But the system was in both cases equally artificial; and the permanent laws of man's social existence operate unceasingly to destroy every distinctive privilege which separates one class of men as a caste from the rest of the community, in violation of the immutable principles of 4 equity. Heaven tolerates temporary injustice committed by individual tyrants to the wildest excesses of iniquity; but history proves that Divine Providence has endowed society with an irrepressible power of expansion, which gradually effaces every permanent infraction of the principles of justice 5 by human legislation. The laws of Lycurgus expired before the Spartan state, and the corps of janissaries possessed more vitality than the tribute of Christian children.-FINLAY, Greece under Othoman and Venetian Denomination.



Though the influence of the Phanariots is acknowledged to have exercised a demoralising effect on the character of the Greek nation, some persons have considered that the nation was fully indemnified for this evil by the impulse 2 which it gave to education. They appear strangely to undervalue morality, and extravagantly to over-estimate the 3 advantages of knowledge. Some degree of literary instruction was necessary to enable the dependents of a great 4 Phanariot official to attain many offices in his gift.


desire of learning was consequently greatly extended among the people, but, unfortunately, the very object for which it was sought prevented its producing any moral improvement 5 on the national character. Fortunately for the Greeks, other contemporary causes tended also to disseminate education from a purer source, and by revealing to the people some idea of the vicious nature of the society by which they were governed, whether Christian or Mohammedan, awakened a conviction that until the national independence was established, no permanent improvement could be effected in the moral condition of the people. FINLAY, Greece under Othoman and Venetian Denomination.

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