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in cases of mere cumulation as well as of iteration and of explanation; and it is not unfrequent in cases of opposition and of consequence or result.

In a series of cumulative expressions, the conjunction is not usually found between every two; the regular practice is to insert it only before the last of all. Yet it is often wanting even there.


1. Send out more horses; skirr the country round;

Hang those that talk of fear. Give me mine armour. 2. No ecclesiastical synod, no church reform, broke the slumbers of the clergy. 3. They played, dressed babies, acted visitings, learned to dance and make curtsies together. 4. Both (Christ and Socrates) were teachers, both were prodigiously influential, both suffered martyrdom. 5. We are lost; we have burned a saint. 6. Deliver him from going down to the pit; I have found a ransom. 7. The Queen lost her memory, the violence of her temper became unbearable, her very courage seemed to forsake her.

8. Great nature spoke; observant man obey'd;
Cities were built, societies were made.

9. He had a small opinion of Saladin, whose scimitar could cut a cushion in two in an instant: who wanted to cut cushions? 10. The lives of the Methodist preachers were often in danger; they were mobbed, they were ducked, they were stoned, they were smothered with filth. 11. It is by gradual steps that you must hope to mount to the summit of your fortune: Rome was not built in a day. 12. The divorce, the renunciation of the Papacy, the degradation of the clergy, the suppression of the monasteries, the religious changes, fell like a series of heavy blows upon the priesthood. 13. I am a Royalist, I blushed for this degradation of the crown. I am a Whig, I blnshed for the dishonour of Parliament. I am a true Englishman, I felt to the quick for the disgrace of England. I am a man, I felt for the melancholy reverse of human affairs, in the fall of the first power of the world.

14. Her lover sinks-she sheds no ill-timed tear;

Her chief is slain-she fills his fatal post;

Her fellows flee-she checks their base career;
The foe retires-she heads the sallying host.


509. In addition to the cases that have already come up incidentally, there may still be given here

a few more examples showing several parts in


'We have many acquaintances, but few friends.'

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A. We have many acquaintances, but B. We have few friends.

'We must think

not whom we are following,

but what we are doing.'

Not A. We must think whom we are following,
but B. We must think what we are doing.

Or, again, incorporate the negation thus :

A. We must not think whom we are following; but B. We must think what we are doing.

'He was entirely ignorant


not only of the judge's disposition,

but also of the ways of men in general.'

Not only A. He was entirely ignorant of the judge's disposition, but also B. He was entirely ignorant of the ways of men in general.


1. Learn to labour and to wait. 2. They had plenty to drink, but nothing to eat. 3. This delay excited little curiosity, and no anxiety. 4. Wit and language, and humour also in some measure, we had before Ben Jonson. 5. Queen Elizabeth knew instinctively how far she could go, and what she could do. 6. Walpole wished to be a celebrated author, and yet to be a mere idle gentleman.

7. Love rules the court, the camp, the grove,

And men below, and saints above.

8. The Magians had neither temples, altars, nor religious symbols of any kind. 9. He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire. 10. The wood was called Fir-tree grove, not because the firs were many, but because they were few. 11. Every other wound we seek to heal, every other affliction to forget. 12. A Welsh bishop avowed that he had seen his diocese but once, and habitually resided at the lakes of Westmoreland. 13. He consented, half from cupidity, half from fear. 14. He dwelt now among

the Britons, now among the Mercians. 15. Charles II.'s bounty generally went, not to those who deserved it best, nor even to those whom he liked best, but to the most shameless and importunate suitor who could obtain an audience.


I. Some he will lead to courts, and some to camps;
To senates some, and public sage debates.

2. The foreign empire of Portugal was brilliant, but brief. 3. The Star Chamber had been remodelled, and the High Commission created, by the Tudors. 4. I come to bury Cæsar, not to praise him. 5. He spoke to her kindly, but without emotion. 6. Fire is a good servant, but a bad master. 7. They mistook the end, and overrated the force of government.

8. Health is the vital principle of bliss,

And exercise of health.

9. An ash or a sycamore every now and then threw its shadow across the path. 10. The Puritans hated bear-baiting, not because it gave pain to the bear, but because it gave pleasure to the spectators. 11. The governing principle of Walpole's conduct was neither love of peace nor love of war, but love of power. 12. There's neither honesty, manhood, nor good-fellowship in thee. 13. "By God, Sir Earl, you shall either go or hang." "By God, Sir King, I will neither go nor hang." 14. We must show partly how the legendary age serves to prepare, partly how it forms a contrast to set off, the subsequent ages of Solon, of Pericles, and of Demosthenes.


Ellipsis in the First of Two Co-ordinate Clauses. 510. The omission is quite readily supplied in one form or another. The mere fact of a permissible ellipsis implies that the meaning is unmistakeable.


1. Yoho! Two stages, and the country roads are almost changed to a continuous street. 2. One complaint more, and I have done with you. 3. A single step forward, and I fire. 4. One word more-I do not want your thanks. 5. Yet a few hours of gloomy seclusion, and he must die a violent and shameful death. 6. A little while, and ye shall not see me; and again, a little while, and ye shall see me. 7. Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be overthrown. 8. A few faint struggles from the scattered infantry, a few rounds of cannon and musketry, and the enemy fled.

Special Cases of Cumulation.

511. Already there have been pointed out certain Compound Sentences that cannot be resolved

without a slight change; namely, the cases where several singular subjects are predicated about in combination by means of a plural verb. On predicating about each subject in separation, we must adapt the verb, making it singular. (§ 504).

We have now to treat of Sentences that are Compound only in form or appearance.

When two names designating an individual from different points of view, are linked together and predicated about, the sentence is compound only in form. So when synonyms are conjoined to emphasise an individual subject. In the case of strictly Compound Subjects, the predicate cannot be attached first to one apparent subject, and next to another; it suits the subjects, not separate, but all combined. In some instances a slight adaptation of the predicate would be enough to allow the resolution, but this need not be pressed. Sometimes an adverbial expression, suitable to the combined sentences, is more or less a bar to the separation of them. And again, two nouns may be connected under the common influence of a preposition in such a way as to forbid resolution.

Examples are also given where the subjects are separated, the predicate cleaving, for the most part, to the subject next to it.

512. Subject twice named.

Mary's secretary and chief favourite was murdered.'

"The person that was Mary's secretary and chief favourite (=Rizzio) was murdered': this shows the real singular meaning; which is also brought out, in the first form, by the singular verb.

One person is meant, and he is named in two capacities. We might resolve formally :

A. Mary's secretary was murdered;

and B. Mary's chief favourite was murdered.

But the resolution rather suggests that two persons were murdered, the case that it is most appropriate to.

'A dimness and doubt overhangs their conclusions.'

'Dimness' and 'doubt' are slightly different ways of designating the same thing. Both together give greater emphasis

than either could give singly. A formal resolution is perfectly competent, and perfectly useless.

513. Compound Subject.

Her opulence and her martial glory grew together.'

The predicate determines the sentence as simple, the subject being compound.


Her opulence

Her martial glory

grew together.

We might say 'England's opulence grew' or 'England's martial glory grew'; but not 'Her opulence grew together," "Her martial glory grew together.' The predicate requires plurality in the subject; and the subject is here given not by a noun in plural form, but by the separate mention of the things predicated


A slight change would allow the resolution. Thus :
Her opulence grew; and

Her martial glory grew at the same time, or together with it.
But such resolving need hardly be encouraged.

'My guardian and this divine had fallen upon different generations.'

Another case of compound subject. The resolution should not be pressed, but it might be managed here not very objectionably thus:

A. My guardian had fallen upon one generation;

and B. This divine had fallen upon another generation. (§ 520.) Force and fraud are, in war, the two cardinal virtues.'

If resolution should be insisted on, the case may be met by some such change as the following:

A. Force is, in war, one of the two cardinal virtues ; and B. Fraud is, in war, one of the two cardinal virtues.

514. 'And' joining words after Preposition.
'Let there be no strife between me and thee.'

This is to be regarded as a simple sentence, the compound appearance being due to the nature of 'between'; two parties, me and thee, are necessary to a strife. We dare not resolve the sentence, on penalty of making nonsense of it:

A. Let there be no strife between me, and B. Let there be no strife between thee.

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