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46. The importance of the PRONOUNS has already been insisted on (§ 12), in view of their usefulness in relieving the Noun. We shall now see that they are in turn relieved by nouns, as well as otherwise, often to the conspicuous advantage of the composition; and that they also interchange to a considerable extent among themselves.

The Pronoun is to be considered primarily in its relation to the Noun. Like the Noun, it points out individuals as subjects or as objects of predication; but in a very different way. While the Noun gives the individual's own name, the Pronoun merely refers us, now in one direction, now in another direction, to find out the individual for ourselves. Hence the force of the reference must be definitely understood; for upon that depends our knowledge of what is meant.

Accordingly it seems well to present a large number of examples for impressing the reference of the pronouns in the wide variety of their usages.

I. PRONOUN replaced by NOUN.

47. This division should be read in connection with the converse cases in §§ 13-36. The Exercises here will in many instances be found easier than these at all events the two sets will throw light upon each other.


It may be again remarked that the Noun does

not readily or completely represent the pronouns of the First and Second Persons. In regard to these, as well as to many cases of the use of other pronouns, it may even be said that we are so familiar with the pronominal usage that the restoration of the noun would often actually mislead us; we should often look for some new and different subject.


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I, we; thou, you, ye, replaced by Nouns. 48. I saw you.' That is- The person speaking saw the person spoken to.'

'Will you (=the persons addressed) come with us (=the speaker and his companions)?'


3. I would

1. I love thee, Ocean. 2. I will not leave you. be friends with you, and have your * love. 4. I charge you, drop your daggers. 5. Friend, what dost thou here? who sent for thee? 6. My son, if sinners entice thee, consent thou not. 7. Philip was like you or me, who will have our own way when we can. 8. Macbeth speaks to Banquo's ghost:

'Avaunt! and quit my sight! Let the earth hide thee!
Thy bones are marrowless, thy blood is cold;

Thou hast no speculation in those eyes

Which thou dost glare with !'


2. The Admiral said We shall soon see that

1. I was out one morning with my shepherds, a few miles distant from my house, when we came to a river that we could pass only by swimming our horses across. to his men:- We deceive ourselves. great cloud discharge itself upon us.' 3. The King speaks:-Ourself will mingle with society.' 4. Shylock:-' Antonio hath disgraced me, and hindered me half a million; laughed at my losses, mocked at my gains, scorned my nation, thwarted my bargains, cooled my friends, heated mine enemies; and what's his reason? I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew eyes?

If you prick us, do we not bleed? if you tickle us, do we not laugh? if you poison us, do we not die? and if you wrong us, shall we not revenge?' 5. Joseph said to his brothers:-'Bring your

See? 12, the first note in small type.

youngest brother unto me: then shall I know that ye are no spies, but that ye are true men: so will I deliver you your brother, and ye shall traffic in the land.' 6. Vain pomp and glory of this world, I hate ye.


1. It is well that we should feel that life is a reckoning we can't make twice over. 2. We are never tiresome to ourselves. 3. When our indignation is borne in submissive silence, we are apt to feel twinges of doubt afterwards as to our generosity, if not justice. 4. King Lear speaks:

'Give me the map there.-Know that we have divided

In three our kingdom; and 'tis our fast intent

To shake all cares and business from our age.'

5. These objects served to occupy our attention till the Customhouse officers visited us, and we were allowed to go on shore. 6. We (the writer) do not disdain to borrow wit or wisdom from any man capable of lending us either. 7. We will now justify the position we took up in our yesterday's article on this question. 8. Our forefathers appeared in the Isle of Britain purely as destroyers. 9. Had we stayed in our earlier land, we should have remained undistinguished from the mass of our Low-Dutch kinsfolk.



Noun for he applied to Persons.

49. Tom lost his ball, and he cannot find it.' 'His' stands for Tom's,' and 'he' for 'Tom': 'Tom lost Tom's ball, and Tom cannot find it.'


1. Yonder is John; call him. 2. The woodman sharpened his axe, and took it with him. 3. Philip's friends listened not impatiently to his talk about himself. 4. The traveller lost his way; darkness overtook him. 5. The king set himself against his parliament; which, therefore, would not grant to him the supplies he demanded. 6. Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew not him. 7. Who did sin, this man, or his parents, that he was born blind? 8. Every man did his duty. 9. The general grew very angry with himself while defending himself.

10. But he, the King of Heaven, obscure on high,
Bared his red arm.

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Noun for he applied to Animals.

50. My friend found my dog, and brought him to me.' 'Him' stands for the individual just men


tioned; we look back and see that my dog' is meant and brought my dog to me.'

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1. The rabbit sat erect upon his haunches. 2. My horse is weary of his stall. 3. The lark has sung his carol in the sky. 4. The man loved the ass, and bitterly lamented the loss of him. 5. The parrot will not hold his tongue; he is constantly chattering to everybody near him. 6. The raven spoke only that one word, as if his soul in that one word he did outpour. 7. The buffalo swims well: he will dive ten or twelve feet, tearing up with his horns aquatic plants, which he eats while swimming. 8. The seal was not asleep, for he reared his head when we were almost within rifle-shot of him. 9. The sparrow is a lazy fellow; he makes his wife work harder than he does himself. 10. The beaver is an industrious animal; he builds a house for himself.

Noun for he applied to Personified Individuals.

51. The river sings his hoarse song': that is, 'the river's hoarse song.'


1. Hast thou a charm to stay the morning star

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3. See lofty Lebanon his head advance. 4. The larch hath hung all his tassels forth. 5. The old house seemed to have many good years of life in him yet. 6. Death surrounded himself with terrors, yet his victim did not fear him.

7. Then came the Autumn, all in yellow clad,
As though he joyèd in his plenteous store,

Laden with fruits that made him laugh full glad
That he had banished hunger.

8. Lastly came Winter, clothed all in frieze,

Chattering his teeth for cold that did him chill;
Whilst on his hoary beard his breath did freeze.

9. Fine old Christmas, with the snowy hair and ruddy face, had done his duty that year in the noblest fashion.

The fine old season meant well; and if he has not learnt the secret how to bless men impartially, it is because his father Time, with ever-unrelenting purpose, still hides that secret in his own mighty, slow-beating heart.

10. So flash'd and fell the brand Excalibur:
But ere he dipt the surface, rose an arm
Clothed in white samite, mystic, wonderful,
And caught him by the hilt, and brandish'd him
Three times, and drew him under in the mere.

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Noun for she applied to Persons.

52. The Spartan mother had reason to be proud of herself (=the Spartan mother just mentioned) and of her (=the Spartan mother's) children.'


1. Your sister wishes you to go with her. 2. We never thought the lady so brave as she has shown herself to be. 3. Ann could not stay; she said her friend was expecting her. 4. Elizabeth's temper was violent, and she desired to be absolute Queen; but she knew her people, and, if she ever allowed herself to ask too much, she prudently withdrew her demand. 5. Jane has torn her dress; she will mend it quickly. 6, Take the book to the girl; it is hers; she lost it yesterday. 7. The gipsy said the children with her were hers. 8. The poor woman was so ill that she could hardly earn bread for herself and her children. 9. Your niece knows of my presence; let her be summoned; she must be a witness of our dealings. 10. I hear the foot of the child still pacing her chamber, and she shall come,

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Noun for she applied to Animals.

53. As for the stork, the fir trees are her house.' 'Her' stands for the stork's': 'the fir trees are the stork's house.'


1. When the female gorilla was shot, her young one rushed to her and embraced her body. 2. The cat is playing with all her kittens around her. 3. The man sold the cow and her calf. 4. He looked at the ewe, but did not buy her; she was too old. 5. Go to the ant, thou sluggard, consider her ways, and be wise. 6. The bird is preparing for herself a nest where she may lay her eggs. 7. We saw the lioness, and followed her till she reached her den. 8. The affection of the partridge for her young is peculiarly strong. In rearing them she is greatly assisted by her mate. 9. The bee forms her cells of wax secreted between the wings of her body; the wasp forms hers from a kind of paper made from vegetable fibres collected by her for the purpose.

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