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in the shapes it takes. 6. He warned us against the company as a swindle. 7. Everybody regards the ascent as easy. 8. The great difficulty in this case, as in all similar cases, is to make sure of the facts. 9. They chose him as their leader. 10. Some look upon me as very proud, some as very modest, and some as very melancholy.

496. He locked the door as usual'='He locked the door as (it was) usual (that he should lock the door).'

'They have read a few Latin authors, as Cæsar, Livy, &c.'' They have read a few Latin authors, as (they have read) Cæsar, Livy, &c.

Act so as (you would act) to justify me in asking permission of the Queen for you to wear a bonnet.' (See §§ 336, 338).

As yet these influences were feebly felt'=' As (these influences were felt) yet, these influences were feebly felt.'

In cases like the second, as' is held in practice to be equivalent to 'for example,' 'for instance,' &c. The ellipsis is almost, if not altogether, ignored.

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The third and fourth examples seem to me to differ only in the form of the adverbial adjunct to the understood verb. As' appears to be pleonastic; in other words, there is a tendency to overlook the elliptical clause. Especially is this the case with 'as yet,' 'as to,' 'as for,' &c. These expressions, with very little (if any) regard to the clause implied, are used as compound phrases standing in place of yet,' 'to,' 'for.' 'in reference to,' in regard to,' &c. Dr. Abbott, following out Mätzner's remark that as' in such phrases has the force of limitation (wirkt in beschränkender und präcisirender Weise), explains as yet,' by an example, thus ("How to Parse," § 487): "I have never been beaten as yet, i.e. so far as concerns past time, but not the future." This commentary cannot be regarded as a filling up of the ellipsis; nor do I see that the case requires, or indeed admits of, such special explanation. There is simply the common omission of the whole clause except the introducing word and the adverbas (matters stand) yet.'

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1. So do as thou hast said. 2. The treaty was left unfulfilled, as might have been expected. 3. Touch me not as yet.

4. I loved you then as now. 5. I know that some people, as our friend here and yourself, think differently. 6. The House of Commons had as yet acted within its strict right. 7. This statement shows the position of the company as at December 31. 8. He looked as in great distress. 9. England, as before, gained nothing from two useless campaigns. 10. Calculate the interest as from the first of the month.

497. Consternation seized upon the people as if some prodigy had happened'' Consternation seized upon the people as (it might, or would, have seized upon the people) if some prodigy had happened.'

"You look as though you had seen a ghost 'You look as (you might, or would, look) if (: though) you had seen a ghost.'



'Fulfil your works, your daily tasks, as when there was straw'' Fulfil your works, your daily tasks, as (you fulfilled them) when there was straw.' Compare § 484, note.

The conditional conjunction was sometimes omitted, 'as' standing alone: You look as you had seen a ghost.'

The two forms stand side by side in the following passage: 'Even now you look on me

As you were not my friend, and as if you

Discovered that I thought so.' SHELLEY, Cenci, 1. 2.


1. He speaks as if he had personal knowledge of the man. 2. You look as though the wood were full of thieves. 3. His rings look as if he kept them up the chimney. 4. The windows of the mansion were open, as when its owner was present. 5. I remember the calamity as if it were but yesterday. 6. Queen Elizabeth rated the great nobles as if they were schoolboys. 7. It will fall to the bottom of the vessel as though it were quicksilver. 8. She thrust the sword from time to time through the arras, as if she heard murderers stirring there. 9. We heard the bellowing of the distant Mediterranean, as if its waters were at our side, swelled with the deluge.

10. The maiden paused, as if again

She thought to catch the distant strain.

Principal Clause filled up from Adverbial Clause preceding. 498. Though all men desert thee, yet will not I.' In full: 'yet will not I desert thee.'

'If you will not go, neither will I': that is, 'neither will I go.'

The subordinate clause comes up first, fully expressed. The principal clause stands second, and the part or parts common to it with the preceding subordinate clause need not be repeated, being readily understood. The principle is the same as in the cases of Ellipsis in Complex Sentences already given; the sole difference is in the arrangement: here the fully expressed clause goes first, and this at the same time happens to be the subordinate one.

Noun Clause, or Adverbial Clause, standing alone.

499. As in Simple sentences, so in Complex sentences, the subject, the object, an adverbial adjunct, or other clause member, may be left standing alone. Such expressions imply that the speaker is under the influence of strong feeling, the unessential points receiving no attention. The omitted part or parts may be filled in variously.

500. 'O that you had told me sooner!' may be given in the full form thus: 'O (how I wish) that you had told me sooner!' (Noun clause).

'That I must endure this!'=' (How bitter it is -It is most shameful-) that I must endure this! (Noun clause); (I am angry, exasperated, &c.-1 chafe, fume, &c.-) that I must endure this!' (Adverbial clause).

If I had only been with you!' This expression is conditional to some unexpressed fact, which is supposed to occur at once to the hearer of the conditional statement. For instance: 'I should

have been delighted,' I should have helped you,' ' I should have done so and so.'

An interjection, 'O,' 'alas,' &c., or an interrogative word, 'how,' 'what,' &c., is sometimes present, indicating the drift of the principal affirmation latent in the mind of the speaker.


1. If we should fail? 2. O, that I had her here, to tear her limbmeal! 3. Alas! that ever I was born! 4. O that Ishmael might live before thee! 5. If you knew how much you are mistaken! 6. How if nobody should believe your account? 7. What though a few of them be dissatisfied? 8. That it should come to this! 9. Could I find out the woman's part in me! 10. What though no flowers the figtree clothe? 11. If the earth could swallow me! 12. Alas that ever a knight should be so false! 13. That a brother should be so perfidious! 14. O that he would but hear me ! 15. What if we should be misled? 16. Alas! that Scottish maid should sing

The combat where her lover fell!

That Scottish bard should wake the string,
The triumph of our foes to tell!

Adverbial Clause merely implied.

501. The Ellipsis of a Subordinate (Adverbial) Clause might be exemplified by such expressions as-They are so glad to have seen you.' A clause (or at all events a phrase) is needed to express the degree of the gladness; the speaker does not undertake to specify this in definite terms, but leaves it to the imagination of the hearer. The weather is so mild (that I cannot describe to you how mild it is).' There is no variety in such instances; and practically 'so' is taken as an indication of indefinite intensity.

Again, I should be glad to see you' is taken practically as a modest and indirect way of saying I shall be glad to see you.' The full expression, however, involves the restoration of a suppressed clause; as thus: 'I should be glad to see you, (if you would―could, &c.—come).'

Further, there are such cases as- You should be more diligent.' The reference to present circumstances is suppressed, being implied in 'more,' and thus taken for granted between speaker and hearer. In full: You should be more diligent (than you have been, or now are, diligent).'

Finally, the second member is often omitted when the subordinate clause is double, being introduced by whether-or.' 'The Military Secretary will have the power of saying whether the exchange shall be made (or the exchange shall not be made).'


1. You could help me greatly. 2. I would not refuse such an offer. 3. I should say you are on the right track. 4. You should be more cautious. 5. Whether he liked military service scarcely appears. 6. We were so anxious to see him. 7. These, far departing, seek a kinder shore. 8. The voyage was so very pleasant. 9. Never had religion seemed at a lower ebb. 10. AĬl the circumstances have been so favourable. 11. I should be inclined to agree with you. 12. Julius Agricola chased before him all the men of fiercer and more intractable spirits. 13. You had better leave that alone. 14. I very much doubt whether the

Phoenicians ever came to Britain. 15.

And Pelleas gazing thought 'Is Guinevere herself so beautiful?'



502. The independent statements that unite to form COMPOUND SENTENCES very often possess some part or parts in common. Unless under circumstances of special stress, such common elements need

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