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6. A silly girl to play the prude with me! 7. But how to prove it? 8. What! I to undertake the risk? 9. And he to turn monster of ingratitude, and strike his lawful host! 10. What! to attribute the sacred sanction of God and nature to the massacres of the Indian scalping-knife! 11. To send forth the merciless cannibal thirsting for blood!—against whom? Our brethren !--To lay waste their country, to desolate their dwellings, and extirpate their race and name, by the aid and instrumentality of these horrible hounds of war!

12.

What! in a town of war,
Yet wild, the people's hearts brimful of fear,
To manage private and domestic quarrel,

In night, and on the court and guard of safety!

EXERCISE 400.

General examples; plurality of parts omitted.

1. Come this way. 2. Try again some months after this. 3. On my word, a notable young baggage! 4. Justice, O royal Duke! 5. Help! 6. Hence, home, you idle creatures! get you home! Is this a holiday? 7. Well done! 8. Neighbour, well met: whither away so fast? 9. Alas for both of you! 10. A bloody deed, and desperately despatched!

11. O Douglas, for thy leading wand!
Fierce Randolph, for thy speed!

O for one hour of Wallace wight,

Or well-skill'd Bruce, to rule the fight,

And cry

"Saint Andrew and our right!" 12. Hark! Hark! my lord, an English drum! 13. Pr'ythee, no more ! 14. Up, guards, and at 'em! 15. On, Stanley, on! 16. Bid my guard watch; leave me. 17. To cabin: silence! 18. Why so angry? 19. A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse! 20. Why then a final note prolong? 21. Sir Cloudesley Shovel a very gallant man! Dr. Busby! a great man! he whipped my grandfather: a very great man! I should have gone to him myself, if I had not been a blockhead; a very great man! 22. Mr. Wilkes was expelled the House. 23. The captain put into port.

24. Water, water everywhere,

And all the boards did shrink;
Water, water everywhere,
Nor any drop to drink.

CHAPTER XVI.

THE COMPLEX SENTENCE.

I. ELLIPSIS in NOUN CLAUSE.

Introductory that' omitted.

472. The only point of the nature of ellipsis that need be noted by younger pupils in connection with the NOUN CLAUSE, is the occasional omission of the introducing word 'that.' The omission takes place chiefly when the noun clause stands as object; and for the most part in short expressions and familiar language.

473. Do you think he is right?' In full: 'Do you think that he is right?'

'I am certain (that) he is right.'

EXERCISE 401.

1. He says he will not come. 2. I hope you will succeed. 3. I expect they will be here presently. 4. We know we are unable to contend with him. 5. John thinks he is quite well now. 6. We heard you were in town. 7. I am sure they will not regret the change. 8. Do you suppose I could have forgotten your kindness? 9. It is strange you should have made the same discovery. 10. I am convinced you are on the wrong track. 11. How is it I see you here? 12. How comes it, Michael, you are thus forgot?

II. ELLIPSIS in ADJECTIVE CLAUSE.

474. Setting aside the habitual reduction of the Adjective Clause to the shorter Phrase forms, the chief practical thing to note here is the ellipsis of

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the introducing relative pronoun. The omission takes place in clauses used restrictively; the typical pronoun left out is that.' There is also occasionally the omission of a preposition connected with the relative pronoun.

In the regular and full form, 'that' is always expected to be present. The most usual omission is when that' is object to a verb or preposition following; more specially when the language is easy and familiar, or when the expression is brief. 'That' as subject is omitted only in poetry and in loose prose; an ellipsis that should be discouraged.

The preposition connected with the relative 'that' is necessarily thrown to the end of the clause, and consequently is apt to drop off. The clauses where it does drop away are for the most part expressions limiting nouns of time. When an adverbial substitute is taken in, the preposition often fixes itself to the adverb and is then in no danger of being lost; as in 'wherein, whereon,' 'whereof, &c.

Rarely does the whole relative adverbial expression, both pronoun and preposition, drop out. Nearly all such instances occur in clauses limiting nouns of time.

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Relative Pronoun as Object omitted.

475. What is it you see?''What is it that you see?'

'Here is the shelf the book should be on.' In full: Here is the shelf that the book should be on.' The two forms are often seen together; as,

'I hear the violent threats () you do not hear,

I see the danger which you cannot see.' TENNYSON, Enid.

EXERCISE 402.

1. Yonder is the place they were to meet in. 2. Show me the passage you spoke of. 3. The anxiety I underwent was

extreme. 4. Which is the one you think best? 5. I like this retirement the better, because of an ill report it lies under of being haunted. 6. Is this the kind of thing you want? 7. The time we agreed upon was six o'clock. 8. He led in triumph the kings he had conquered. 9. The things you long for you must work for. 10. No man I know would suit you better.

Relative Pronoun as Subject omitted.

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476. Thou art the first man ever did so' is improperly used for Thou art the first man that ever did so.'

'It was his counsel had brought about this marriage.' Better: 'It was his counsel that had brought about this marriage.'

1.

EXERCISE 403.

Never was a war did cease,

Ere bloody hands were washed, with such a peace. 2. Haply I see a friend will save my life. 3. 'Tis the sunset of life gives me mystical lore. 4. There are verses can make the wild hawk pause on his wing. 5. The boat was manned with the best men ever handled an oar. 6. Who was it took the news to Hall Farm. 7. The Rehearsal is the best farce ever was written. 8. Have I no friend will rid me of this living fear? 9. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. 10. I know a charm shall make thee meek and tame.

Preposition, and Preposition and Relative, omitied.

477. Hardly a day passed that the partisans did not make their inroads.' In full: 'Hardly a day passed that the partisans did not make their inroads on (or in, during, &c.).'

The moment I saw him I recognized him '= 'The moment that I saw him in (or at, &c.) I recognized him'; 'The moment (at which or when) I saw him I recognized him.'

EXERCISE 404.

1. The time that Britain remained a Roman Province was between three and four hundred years. 2. Tilly displayed nothing but weakness and indecision from the moment that he was matched with Gustavus. 3. There were not many days in

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the week that he was not seen riding to the Warrens. 4. This is the reason that I sent for thee. 5. In that day thou seest my face thou shalt surely die. 6. This well appeareth by the cause you come. 7. In the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. 8. The instant he understood my meaning, he forgot all his grievances. 9. And we shall then use our understandings right, when we entertain all objects in that way and proportion that they are suited to our faculties, and upon those grounds they are capable of being proposed to us.

10.

Off with the traitor's head,
And rear it in the place your father's stands.

Ellipsis of Antecedent to Relative.

478. The ANTECEDENT, or subject that the Relative points back to, is sometimes left out; but only when the relative clause is restrictive.

The ellipsis may occur in subject, object, or phrase adjunct. Thus:

Whom the gods love, die young' is, in full, 'Those (or The persons) whom the gods love, die young.'

'Whom he smote, he slew '=' Those (or The men, foes, opponents, &c.) whom he smote, he slew.'

'I will give the ring to whom I please'='I will give the ring to (him or her) whom I please (to give the ring to).'

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The blameless King went forth and cast his eyes On ( ) whom his father Uther left in charge Long since, to guard the justice of the King.'

Apart from poetical usage and arbitrary or imitative inversions, some of the most important instances of this omission are exemplified in the application of the Compound Relatives (§ 83). These are indefinite in meaning, and hence the ellipsis of the antecedent is quite natural, as it is usual.

The force of the omitted antecedent noun (or noun equivalent) is thrown upon the adjective clause; and hence, in very many cases, the ellipsis is neglected, the adjective clause being then accepted as a noun clause. The examples in § 83 and Exercise 77, those introduced by 'what' in § 85 and Exercise 79, and all similar instances, are fundamentally adjective clauses; yet, in consequence of the survival of the force of the antecedent, they are practically regarded as noun clauses.

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