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Noun left out after Possessive Case.

455. 'Come with me to the bookseller's (shop).' 'His fame equals the knight's (fame).'

King's (College) is a famous College.'

EXERCISE 383.

1. Who built St. Paul's? 2. Will Wimble's is the case of many a younger brother of a great family. 3. Her Majesty's is a fine house. 4. St. Ogg's was situated on the Floss. 5. I have been staying at Sir Roger's in the country. 6. He is a Fellow of Queen's. 7. Have you been to Madame Tussaud's? 8. Button's was a favourite meeting-place of Addison and his friends. 9. I saw him at the jeweller's to-day. 10. The knight asked me if I would smoke a pipe with him over a dish of coffee at Squire's. 11. There's money of the king's coming down the hill.

12. That eye returned him glance for glance,

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And proudly to his sire's was raised,

Till Giaffir's quail'd and shrunk askance.

Pronoun as Subject omitted in Imperative Sentences. 456. Come here'=' Come thou (or you) here. Bring roses, pour ye wine.' The subject pronoun is left out with the first verb, and supplied with the second.

The subject pronoun is rarely inserted except for the purpose of emphasis. Nelson's order at Trafalgar Anchor, Hardy, anchor-omits it. But when Hardy in reply hinted that the direction of affairs would now fall to Collingwood, Nelson expressed himself with decision: Not while I live, Hardy; do you anchor.' You, in emphatic contrast to Collingwood.

EXERCISE 384.

1. Throw your mistempered weapons to the ground,
And hear the sentence of your moved prince.

2. O spare mine eyes. 3. Give me my armour.

4. My bleeding country save. 5. Weave thy chaplet of flowers, and strew the beauties of nature about the grave.

6. Awake, Æolian lyre, awake,

And give to rapture all thy trembling strings.

7. Bring me no more reports. 8. Strike, but hear. 9. Be not weary in well-doing. 10. O banish me, my lord, but kill me not. 11. Friends of the world! restore your swords to man, Fight in his sacred cause, and lead the van!

Yet for Sarmatia's tears of blood atone,

And make her arm puissant as your own!

Subject omitted in Sentences not Imperative. 457. Beseech you!' is for 'I beseech you!' 'Art cold?'=' Art thou cold?'

'Bless you, Sir'' Heaven bless you, Sir.'

The last case may also be claimed as still further elliptical: 'May heaven bless you'; 'I pray that heaven may bless you.' EXERCISE 385.

1. Thank you. 2. Give you good day. 3. Save you, Sir. 4. Bless me! what is this? 5. Art not ashamed? 6. Dost hear? 7. Pr'ythee, what is thy name? 8. How dost? and where hast been these eighteen months? 9. Wilt go with me? 10. This is my Son beloved, in him am pleased.

11. The guests are met, the feast is set;

May'st hear the merry din.

'To' of Infinitive left out.

458. Better be with the dead.' In full: (It would be) better (to) be with the dead.'

"They had better consider their position.' The full form, which however is not used, would beThey had better to consider.'

'I cannot but remember them.' On certain occasions, as here, 'to' is not inserted after 'but.'

Although we are accustomed to think of 'to' as an essential part of the Infinitive, it was not so originally. This case is therefore an ellipsis only from the modern point of view. The extended quotation of the first passage above shows also the full form with 'to':

'Better be with the dead,

Whom we to gain our peace, have sent to peace,
Than on the torture of the mind to lie

In restless ecstasy.'

Macbeth, III. 2.

For 'to' omitted in Complement after certain verbs, see ELLIPSIS IN THE PREDICATE, §§ 461-3.

EXERCISE 386.

1. May it please your highness sit? 2. Me lists not tell what words were said. 3. T were best not know myself. 4. I had rather not be present. 5. I cannot but be sad. 6. Best stand upon our guard. 7. You had better go home now. 8. I cannot choose but weep for thee. 9. We had best return.

10. Will 't please you hear me? 11. I could not but observe this, 12. Him booteth not resist nor succour call,

Object left out.

459. The total omission of the Object makes the Verb intransitive and general. When an object is specified, the action of the verb is thereby directed into a definite channel. The absence of an object forbids special application of the action; the action is generalized. 'The audience applauded the speaker' (transitive); 'the audience never applauds' (intransitive and general). Fire burns': there is nothing gained if we say at length 'Fire burns whatever is put in it.'

In some authors, the disuse of reflective transitive verbs by the substitution of intransitives, that is, by simply dropping the object, forces itself on the attention of the student. The modern usage should be compared with the following instances from Addison: If any dispute arises, they apply themselves to him for the decision' (Spectator 106); 'an old woman applied herself to me for my charity' (Spec. 117); sweethearts are the things they [the gypsies] live upon, which they bestow very plentifully upon all those that apply themselves to them' (Spec. 130): 'my good friend the butler desired me with a very grave face not to venture myself in it [the elm tree walk] after sunset' (Spec. 110). The same verb is frequently in common use both as intransitive and as reflective transitive: 'develop' and 'develop itself,' &c.

II. ELLIPSIS in the PREDICATE.

Predicate Verb or Complement Verb left out.

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460. Where the place?' In full: Where is the place?' or 'Where shall the place be?'

'I'll to England.' In full: 'I'll go (flee, &c.) to England.'

EXERCISE 387.

1. Hence the difficulty. 2. A ministering angel thou. 3. He to England shall along with you. 4. Peace to his ashes! 5. "And whence, unhappy youth," he cried, "The sorrows of thy breast?"

6. Unpractised he to fawn, or seek for power,
By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour.

7. Whose footsteps these? 8. No place safer! 9. Short his career indeed, but ably run. 10. I will back to rescue the lady.

11. You must to Pomfret.

12. Unknown to them, when sensual pleasures cloy,
To fill the languid pause with finer joy;

Unknown those powers that raise the soul to flame.

"To' of Infinitive in Complement left out. 461. After shall, will, may, can, do, must, let.

EXERCISE 388.

1. I shall not go. 2. You should not go either. 3. What will be done? 4. Thou seest that I may not tarry. 5. How can you help us? 6. We do not understand the scheme. 7. You must be cautious. 8. Thou let'st thy fortune sleep. 9. They hoped that a general election would add to their strength. 10. I cannot repress my indignation. 11. Did I not say so? 12. 0, I could weep my spirit from mine eyes!

14.

13. Nor nearer might the dogs attain,

Nor farther might the quarry strain.

Hear me, for I will speak.

Must I give way and room to your rash choler?
Shall I be frighted when a madman stares?

462. After have, dare, bid, need, make.

After these words the insertion of 'to' is more or less variable. Compare: You have dared to tell what I dared not tell myself.' (SCOTT).

EXERCISE 389.

1. I'll have them sleep on cushions in my tent. 2. There needs be no hesitation in affirming that. 3. I dare swear he is no hypocrite. 4. Now bid me run. 5. I shall make you laugh anon. 6. He bade them do their worst. 7. I would not have thee wed a boy. 8. You need not wait. 9. I ordered the lieutenant to cause his trumpet blow to horse. 10. We often had the traveller or stranger visit us to taste our gooseberry wine. 11. He that dares desire this haven must have steered a steady

course in the voyage of life. I dare not hope for such quiet harbour. Darest thou expect it?

12. Her kindness and her worth to spy,

You need but gaze on Ellen's eye.

463. After see, hear, feel, &c., wish, desire, &c.

Here again the usage is variable. In some cases the omission of 'to' belongs mostly, if not entirely, to our older literature or to poetry.

EXERCISE 390.

1. Nay, then, I cannot blame his cousin king,

That wished him on the barren mountains starve.

2. I see them sit. 3. She marked his banner boldly fly. 4. Did you hear him play? 5. I have felt my heart beat lighter. 6. I never knew a man take his death so patiently. 7. Your betters have endured me say my mind. 8. Desire her call her wisdom to her. 9. Help unarm our Hector. 10. Help me scale yon balcony. 11. In lazy mood I watched the little circles die.

12. Thee [the house of Admetus] Apollo's very self, The lyric Pythian, deigned inhabit once.

III. ELLIPSIS in ADJECTIVAL ADJUNCTS.

464. The gradual reduction of the full-bodied Adjective Clause or Participial Phrase by mere omission need not be discussed here; it is enough to refer to the cases of interchange already given. The omission of the verb element leaves the adjunct in the Prepositional Phrase form or even as a mere Noun or Adverb: 'the man in the moon,' 'the church on the hill, the church yonder-here,' 'Heaven above, the tribes beyond, the shepherd king,' 'the hill tribes,' 'water fowl,' 'field practice,' 'road steamers,' &c.

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Such cases have been sufficiently exemplified. What is left for more special attention here is the frequent case where an adjectival qualification is wholly implied; the speaker or writer not stating his meaning fully, but depending upon the hearer or

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