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1. We love him because he first loved us. 2. As he was apprehensive that they might return flattering answers if they knew who he was, he had written under feigned names. 3. Since the tongue is a very loose and versatile engine, it cannot but need much attention. 4. Such treatment I did not expect, for I never had a patron before. 5. We dislike him but the more that we know not positively how to blame him. 6. Do not draw back, for we will mourn with thee. 7. Whereas thou hast searched all my stuff, what hast thou found of ail thy household stuff? 8. What shall we do, seeing Rigan cometh with an host to fight against us? 9. This event gave me great joy, as I was permitted now to continue my journey. 10. As Cæsar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honour him: but, as he was ambitious, I slew him.

Adverbial Clause of Purpose into Co-ordinate Sentence (Illative).

433. 'We sow that we may reap'=' We desire to reap-Our end, purpose, aim, is to reap; therefore we sow.'

'I will set out at once, lest I be late-that I may not be late'='I should like not to be late; so (accordingly, consequently, &c.) I will set out at



1. He tried to bribe the commandant, that he might get early possession of the town. 2. Do not urge him more, lest he become angry. 3. We have laboured earnestly that the project should not miscarry. 4. Come on, let us deal wisely with them, lest they multiply. 5. Shall I go and call to thee a nurse of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for thee? 6. Come through the lane, lest we be too late. 7. Many people came up to London, that they might see the coronation. 8. He professed great anxiety to discover the guilty person, (in order) that he might not be suspected himself. 9. It is not for kings to drink wine, nor for princes strong drink; lest they drink, and forget the law, and pervert the judgment of any of the afflicted.


Thou shalt not live;
That I may tell pale-hearted fear it lies,
And sleep in spite of thunder.


434. The full form of statement in a separate sentence may, as we have already seen, be occasionally dispensed with, by the help of various shorter forms.

The NOUN equivalents can scarcely advance a substantial claim to supersede an independent affirmation. There may, indeed, be such familiar interchanges as this: He will not come; I know it'-may more usually be given in the single statement- I know he will not come.' But such instances, while not fully in point, are obvious enough, and we will not detain the pupil with exemplification.

435. The ADJECTIVE equivalents, from the simplest adjective phrase up to the adjective clause, are very often condensations that might be stated, if need were, in the full form of an independent affirmation. But considering the many illustrations already given, which may be converted in the simplest manner into self-supporting propositions, there is hardly need to do more here than simply to bespeak attention to the other side of the interchange.

See the Co-ordinating Adjective expressions generally.

436. The ADVERB equivalents assume higher importance in the interchange with independent Co-ordinate Sentences. The correspondence be


tween the two great classes of conjunctions affords matter of interest; and this is very thoroughly brought out by an exchange of independent and dependent affirmations.

The instances that follow should be compared with the instances under the corresponding paragraphs (§§ 232-4, 347-54, 429-33).




437. Your proposal will be agreed to; that is certain'; (or' It is certain that your proposal will be agreed to')='Your proposal will certainly be agreed to.'

'This course is to be followed; and no exception will be permitted''This course is to be invariably followed.'


1. The ministers will resign; that is clear. (It is clear that the ministers will resign). 2. He gave false information; but he did not intend to do so. 3. The general was wounded, and died afterwards. 4. The two boys are like each other: the likeness is remarkable. 5. There has been gross carelessness, it seems. (It appears that there has been gross carelessness). 6. He criticised all the important points of the measure; and his opinion was favourable. 7. The governor yielded to the voice of the people; which was the wise course to take in the circumstances. 8. There is little interest in the question; that is manifest. is evident that there is little interest in the question). 9. The


ship has foundered; that is not improbable. (It is not improbable-it is conjectured, supposed, &c.-that the ship has foundered). 10. The contract has now been completed, and everybody concerned is satisfied. 11. There was something wrong, more than common-that was quite clear. 12. There will be strong opposition; you may be sure of that.


Co-ordinate Sentence



into Prepositional Phrase.

438. He spoke in support of the institution, and (also, besides, moreover, &c.) he contributed liberally to it'; 'he both spoke and contributed'; 'he not only spoke, but also contributed.' Otherwise: Besides speaking in support of the institution, he contributed liberally to it.'

'I have long studied the subject, and I am of your opinion'=' After long study of the subject— after having long studied the subject, I am of your opinion.'

The equivalent phrases express not merely Cumulation or Addition, but also in many cases Time, and even some degree of Result or Consequence. It will be explained presently (§ 443) that the leading Cumulative Conjunction 'and' may establish other relations between propositions.


1. He has good natural ability; besides, he is well-educated. 2. Boileau had read Addison's Latin poems, and admired them greatly. 3. Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be overthrown. 4. He has had much experience at home; moreover, he has resided long in India. 5. Many experiments have been made, and the results have been in all cases the same. 6. We can discern many faults both in his writings and in his conduct. 7. Our interpreter told us that this lady was a maid of honour to Queen Elizabeth, whereupon the knight was very inquisitive into her name and family. 8. The King had broken faith, not only with his great Council and with his people, but with his own

adherents. 9. A little while, and ye shall not see me; and again a little while, and ye shall see me.

10. Will you be prick'd in number of our friends,

Or shall we on, and not depend on you?

Co-ordinate Sentence into Prepositional Phrase.


439. You must go abroad, else your health will give way'' You must go abroad, on pain of bad health-for the avoidance of bad health.

'He loves me not, yet he seems anxious to serve me'; or' He seems anxious to serve me, yet he loves me not'=' For (with, in spite of, notwithstanding, &c.) all his seeming anxiety to serve me, (yet) he loves me not.'


1. He cannot continue such exhausting work, or his life will be seriously endangered. 2. The knight did not wait for my answer, but went on with his story. 3. They promise liberally, but they are slow to perform. 4. It was a perilous undertaking, yet he must obey. 5. The members must vote for the measure, else they will displease their constituents. 6. They laboured assiduously, yet they failed in their object. 7. The Whigs still composed a majority of the House of Commons; but it was plain that the Tory spirit was fast rising throughout the country. 8. The troops had to march all night, otherwise they would have been too late. 9. We searched for the papers, but could not find them. 10. Some adventurers pressed Monmouth to take a severe course. Monmouth, however, would not listen to this advice.

Co-ordinate Sentence }

(Cause and Effect)

into Prepositional Phrase.

440. He is very ambitious; therefore he works with constant energy'='In consequence of being ambitious-In view of his ambitious designs— Owing to his ambition, he works with constant energy.'

Our attempts were fruitless; hence we became disheartened': or, 'to our (great) discouragement.' EXERCISE 372.

1. The hunters rode through the field; consequently they damaged the crops greatly. 2. He was very unsteady, and

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