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is-He had not the courage to enter the house alone.'

See the corresponding forms in § 339, and the note there.


1. The Romans were so much accustomed to victory that they did not hesitate about accepting battle. 2. The guide was so much confused that he could not answer the question directly. 3. He is so old that he will not learn. 4. The people were so intimidated that they offered no resistance to his landing. 5. The story was so touching that it could not be soon forgotten. 6. Not many travellers are so daring that they wander out of beaten tracks. 7. With such as are so extravagant that they would controvert so evident a truth it is idle to contend. 8. He was not so powerful that he could enforce his demands. 9. No observation that dropped from the lips of Majesty seemed to Walpole so trifling that it should not be recorded. 10. He had so much influence that he got himself elected.


1. The wind was so strong that it drove the ship aground. 2. He is so cautious that he will not make such an attempt. 3. He is so downhearted that he will neither eat nor drink. 4. Often she was so absorbed that she was totally unconscious of all that was going on around. 5. Wherefore dealt ye so ill with me that ye told the man whether ye had yet a brother? 6. The night is so dark that we could not move in it. 7. I am so old that I am not able to fight, and I am so poor that I am not able to pay. 8. The loss is not so great that I shall despair. 9. Two cities of Assyria were so presumptuous that they resisted the Roman arms. 10. These caitiff nobles are neither so brave that they are great, nor so wise that they are honest.

merged in simpler form of sentence.

426. 'The better the day, the better the deed.' The same sense may be given in a totally different form: The day sanctifies the deed.'

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The larger the muscle, the stronger the body' may be expressed similarly thus: Largeness of muscle gives greater strength of body.'

The clause form is grammatically more complex, but, in practical use, it is very much more simple and intelligible than the other. The second form, in comparison with the first, gives opportunity for showing some advantages and disadvantages of the abstract noun.

Compare § 45, where examples of other adverbial clauses are given from the side of the noun form.


1. The more diligently one practises, the nearer perfection does one come. 2. The larger the brain, the more vigorous the mind. 3. The better the farming, the worse the land is for game. 4. The higher we ascend into the air, the colder it becomes. 5. The greater his difficulties are, the more energetic he is. 6. The more money one has, the more rapidly does it increase. 7. The more virtuous we are, the happier we are. 8. The more time he loses, the poorer he considers himself. 9. The more thoroughly you examine the proposition, the less satisfactory will it appear. 10. Truth, like a torch, the more it's shook (shaken), it shines.

IV. ADVERBIAL CLAUSE (of Manner) into INFINITIVE (Complement).

427. Under § 309, an adverbial phrase in the prepositional form was shown to interchange with an Infinitive Complement to an incomplete verb. A CLAUSE may take the place of the phrase: 'The country people seemed to suspect me as a conjuror,' that is, in full-as (they would suspect) a conjuror,' may become 'The country people seem to suspect me to be a conjuror.

For examples under this head, the pupil will convert the phrases of § 309 into elliptical clauses, by substituting 'as' in place of 'for.' He should also refer to § 249.



428. 'I should not perhaps name my purpose to you, for (since, as, seeing that, &c.) your own


safety may be implicated'='I should not perhaps name my purpose to you, whose own safety may implicated.'

If outsiders interfere with these quarrels, they are told to mind their own business'' Outsiders that interfere with these quarrels are told to mind their own business.'

Not merely the Clause, but, as we have seen, any other of the adjective equivalents, may give the meaning of an adverbial expression. Some grammarians, it should be remarked, would at once analyze clauses like 'whose safety may be implicated,' not as adjectival, but as adverbial. (See § 389, and foot-note, p. 234. Compare also §§ 76-7, 83-4).


1. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature (two centuries back), she was regarded as a prodigy. 2. The king became increasingly furious as the pain returned. 3. I cannot go with you, for I have not been invited. 4. If a baker, a mason, or a waggoner attracted notice by his diligence and sobriety, he was in all probability one of Oliver's old soldiers. 5. The advocate called for blood, for he was a very cruel man. 6. The old proprietor, though he wished to be thought generous, was very unwilling to part with money. 7. If a ruler hearken to lies, all his servants are wicked. 8. Though these houses are built on marshy ground, yet they are all let at high rents. 9. I will not argue the point with John, for he is not open to conviction. 10. If a Scotchman was taken into a warehouse as a porter, he soon became foreman. If he enlisted in the army, he soon became a sergeant.



429. When a statement is expressed in the form of a subordinate clause, it is thereby set forth as inferior, as given not for its own sake but for the bearing it may have upon the principal statement. If we release such a statement from its position of dependence, and establish it as a sentence on its own account, we shall invest it with considerably

higher importance. Even when the independent form may not seem desirable, the change will in most cases bring with it increased insight into the mutual relations of clauses and the comparative advantages and disadvantages of co-ordinate and subordinate (adverbial) expression.

Adverbial Clause of Time into Co-ordinate Sentence (Cumulative).

430.' When she opened the ark, she saw the child'=' She opened the ark, and she saw the


'Now I was an officer, I resolved to maintain the dignity of my station'=' I was now an officer, and I resolved to maintain the dignity of my station.'

In some of these examples, there are tinges of other meanings besides Time and Cumulation; for instance, Effect or Consequence is occasionally implied.


1. As soon as they arrived, the work began. 2. Now that I thought myself qualified, I longed for an opportunity to retrieve my honour. 3. After I had examined the case carefully, I was much dissatisfied with it. 4. While they forgave him, they also applauded him. 5. Look before you leap. 6. Now that I am permitted by my instructions, I shall disclose the intent and destination of our voyage. 7. As I was now capable of reflection, I began to consider my precarious situation. 8. While he voted with the majority, he also spoke strongly for the bill. 9. While Julius Agricola was a brave soldier, he was also a good man, and while he did all he could to conquer the people, he at the same time did all he could to civilize them. 10. As soon as he spoke, it was done; as soon as he commanded, all things stood fast.

Adverbial Clause of Condition into Co-ordinate Sentence (Adversative).

431. If this be not the truth-Unless this be the truth, let Benvolio die'='This is the truth, or (else, otherwise) let Benvolio die.'

Though he tries hard, (still, yet, &c.) he is seldom successful'=' He tries hard, yet (still, &c.) he is seldom successful.'

Though (or while, whereas) Hannibal confessedly had pledged himself to a certain result, Milton had not'' Hannibal confessedly had pledged himself to a certain result, (whereas, or while) Milton had not'; or, 'Milton, on the other hand, had not.'


1. Unless thou tell'st me where thou hadst this ring,

Thou diest within this hour.

2. If you do not finish the work, you and all of us are lost. 3. Though you do not hear their footsteps, their advance is certain. 4. If I do not seem to be angry, she too may begin to despise my authority. 5. While he plainly invaded the order of succession, he had not acknowledged the election of the people. 6. Whereas I was blind, now I see. 7. Though she was a woman of great strength of mind, and had little cause to love him, her misery was such that none of the bystanders could refrain from weeping. 8. Had* they not gone forward, death was inevitable. 9. Though the particular persons and events chronicled in the legendary poems of Greece are not to be regarded as belonging to the province of real history, those poems are nevertheless full of instruction as pictures of life and manners.

10. Poor man! I know he would not be a wolf

But that he sees the Romans are but sheep :
He were no lion, were not Romans hinds.

Adverbial Clause of Cause into Co-ordinate Sentence (Illative).

432. He failed because he was too rash ='He was too rash, therefore (hence, thus, so that, consequently, &c.) he failed.'

Rejoice with me; for I have found my sheep which was lost'='I have found my sheep which was lost; therefore (accordingly, so, &c.) rejoice

with me.'


With inversion, the conjunction is omitted. The regular expression would be: If they had not gone forward,' 'if Romans were not hinds.' (See? 493.)

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