Imágenes de páginas
[ocr errors]

384. The difficulties whereby this enquiry is surrounded are not readily overcome.' A shorter form may be used: The difficulties surrounding this enquiry are not readily overcome.'

As a step from the more difficult to the simpler form, the pupil should give equivalent expressions like these 'The difficulties that this enquiry is surrounded by-that surround this enquiry—that lie (or stand) in the way of this enquiry.'


1. This is a matter where no proof is necessary. 2. The knowledge whereby the lower animals are guided is unconnected with language. 3. Punishment was to be inflicted on whoever possessed any book wherein the new doctrines were inculcated. 4. We must examine into such circumstances as preceded the event. 5. All claims whereby life is sweetened are to them unknown. 6. The soldiers searched every house where they suspected he might find shelter. 7. He revoked the regulation whereby he had made Jerusalem the point of prayer. 8. Many renounced the religion wherein they had been brought up. 9. The agencies whereby these changes are produced are likely to continue. 10. None doubted that such soldiers as perished in the war received immediately the reward of martyrdom.

Adjective Clause replaced by Participle, co-ordinating.

[ocr errors]

385. The judges of the common law, who held their situations during the pleasure of the King, were scandalously obsequious.' Instead of the italicised clause, we might have 'whose situations were held during the pleasure of the King, or whom the King might at pleasure remove from their situations.' Any of the three forms may be replaced by this: The judges, holding their situations at the pleasure of the King, were scandalously obsequious.'


The treaty of Bretigny, which was called The Great Peace,' was ratified in 1360. 2. So shall the virtues of cold water, which have been too little valued since your fathers' days, be recognised

by all. 3. France, whose unity was broken up by religious dissensions, was never a formidable opponent to Philip II. of Spain. 4. The taper in the centre, which represented the primate, was taller than the rest. 5. In marriage the woman ventures most, who has no sanctuary to retire to from an evil husband. 6. We now enter smiling valleys, overhanging which are the most romantic steeps. 7. Among these idols were Abraham and Ishmael, who had once been revered as prophets, but who were now represented with divining arrows in their hands. 8. He now descried the caravan, which consisted of several camels laden with merchandise, and which was conducted by four men. 9. He had but one son, whose name was Offa. 10. The meeting of the King and the captive, who were united by such close domestic ties, and who had been divided by such inexpiable injuries, was a strange sight.

[ocr errors]

386. England and France at length concluded a treaty, whereby (or wherein) they bound themselves to remain neutral in respect of Germany.' A simpler form is: England and France at length concluded a treaty, binding themselves to remain neutral in respect of Germany.'


[ocr errors]


There came

Two blighting seasons, when the fields were left

With half a harvest.

2. This suggestion, whereby it was but too clearly indicated that his judgment had been affected, was wisely set aside. 3. The language of this donation, wherein all islands are asserted to be the exclusive property of St. Peter, should not have had a pleasing sound to an insular monarch. 4. Even in this attempt, whereby she, as well as they, was affected in a delicate point, they discovered how much they were overawed by her authority. 5. The Queen's speech, wherein were contained some reprimands to the Commons, was full of her former high pretensions. 6. This demand, whereby a change of ecclesiastical government was really introduced, was rejected by the prelates. 7. This rigour, wherein the queen proceeded one step too far, proved the final ruin of Essex. 8. He remained seven years in prison, where he was utterly forgotten. 9. The queen sent him a favourable message, wherein she expressed her desire of his recovery. 10. Mahomet remained for a month in the house of Orkham, where he continued his revelations and drew to him sectaries from various parts of Arabia.


387. This substitution is considered important enough to deserve a separate heading; not that it may be illustrated here in full detail, but chiefly that special attention may be again directed to the interchange in connection with examples already given. The substituted adverbial PHRASES are for the most part simply elliptical clauses. The adverbial CLAUSE, as a substitute, is very interesting; but when the adjective clause is restrictive, the equivalence of meaning is not always perfect.

Compare also the cases of Adverbial substitution for the Adjective and the Adjective Phrase.



Adjective Clause replaced by Adverbial Phrase. 388. 'Sunderland was the first minister that Sunderland was the first minister to fall. 'He is not a (or the) man that would say what he does not believe'=' He is not a (or the) man to say what he does not believe.'

Compare §§ 345-6.


1. He was the first that shed blood in the cause of Islam. 2. You are not the man that would desert your old friend. 3. Bacon was the first that impressed upon mankind at large the importance of physical research. 4. I was the last person that entered the room. 5. These are not men that would proceed on insufficient grounds. 6. He was the first that reached the tent of the prophet. 7. There were no fruits that they could gather. 8. Is this the way in which we are to bind officers and men together? 9. They wanted a common arbitrator that they might resort to in their differences. 10. As we were the first that came into the house, so we were the last that went out of it.

Adjective Clause replaced by Adverbial Clause.

389. 'No man was invited to the Upper House whose right to sit there was not clear-that had not

a clear right to sit there'=' No man was invited to the Upper House unless his right to sit there was clear if his right to sit there was not clear.'

'This street, which is very noisy, will not suit you''This street will not suit you, for (because, as, &c.) it is very noisy.' * Compare §§ 83-4 and 428.


2. The

1. A house that is set on an hill cannot be hid. chancellor, whose bill had been rejected, was in no amiable humour. 3. The boy, who went with me, can testify to this. 4. Our general, who was greatly outnumbered by the enemy, still maintained his position. 5. He tires betimes that spurs too fast betimes. 6. Who checks at me, to death is dight. 7. Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown. 8. Whoever is found trespassing will be prosecuted. 9. Your hand, which, like the surgeon's, gave me pain, yet has cured my blindness. 10. Antiochus, I thank thee, who hath taught My frail mortality to know itself.


[ocr errors]

390. The CO-ORDINATING ADJECTIVE CLAUSE (or, indeed, any other adjective equivalent) passes by a very short transition into a separate PRINCIPAL STATEMENT. The natives, who are also seized with these symptoms, ascribe them to poisoned air' may be broken up thus: "The natives are also seized with these symptoms; the natives ascribe them to poisoned air-two co-ordinate affirmations. His ambitious schemes were not carried out'=' His schemes, which were ambitious, were not carried

*Some grammarians would call 'which is very noisy,' not an Adjective clause, but an Adverbial clause. (See Dr. Abbott's 'How to Parse,' 250: compare also 261). Our review of the interchanges of Adjective and adjective equivalents with Adverbial forms, should make one hesitate to adopt the innovation. There could be no following it out in all the cases of adjective equivalents with adverbial force implied. Dr. Abbott himself, it is to be noted, is anything but stringent in the case of the adjective phrases that are essentially adverbial,

out''His schemes were ambitious; they were not carried out'-two co-ordinate propositions.' We have already given examples where the Participle, as type of adjective phrases, is similarly converted into a co-ordinate statement. (§ 291).

The numerous examples of co-ordinating adjective equivalents supply abundance of cases for practice. (See also §§ 33-5 and §§ 68-72 in comparison; and §§ 76-7).



391. The ADVERBIAL CLAUSE does the office of the Adverb. It acts as substitute for the Adverb in all the adverbial usages in a sentence.

The Adverbial Clause may be replaced by the simple ADVERB, and more especially by the many varieties of ADVERBIAL PHRASE. Adverbial meaning, as we have already seen, may be transferred into Adjectival forms. And sometimes it may be set forth in a separate Co-ORDINATE SENTENCE.


392. There is not much scope for this interchange, except with the expressions of Manner and Degree. These are often given with great force as adverb condensations from equivalent clauses. A reference need not often be made by means of a repeating clause; an adverb does the work simply and shortly.

« AnteriorContinuar »