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III. NOUN CLAUSE replaced by

367. A Noun Clause is often attached to nouns or to adjectives in virtue of the force of a cognate or an equivalent transitive verb implied in them. "Evidences (=facts or objects evidencing, or proving) that a crime had been committed. He was desirous (He desired) that I should come.

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Sometimes a verb takes a noun clause as object although it refuses a noun of equivalent meaning. 'He contended that his property should be restored' may not be changed into 'He contended the restitution of his property': a preposition is introduced, making either a compound transitive verb 'contended for, or an adverbial phrase 'for the restitution of his property' modifying the intransitive verb 'contended.'

A noun clause in apposition to a noun may not be expressed by a noun without the intervention of a preposition. The fact that there is a great deficiency' becomes the fact of (the existence of) a great deficiency.'

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Such cases may be regarded as substitutions of a Prepositional Phrase for a Noun Clause. phrase is mostly of an adverbial force. tive interpretations should be noted. (§§ 340-4).


Noun Clause replaced by Prepositional Phrase.

368. They brought back numerous evidences that the expedition had been successful. Or, 'They brought back numerous evidences of the success of the expedition. (Adjective Phrase? Compare p. 222, top.)

'He was conscious that he had many deficiencies -'He was conscious of many deficiencies.'


'We hope that better times will come'='We hope for better times.'

'The question whether this tax should be revived will be debated presently''The question of the revival of this tax will be debated presently.'


1. There can be no doubt that they are well-disposed (or friendly) to us. 2. He paid a visit to his brother in the hope that he should persuade the latter to adopt milder counsels. 3. There seems every chance that it will return to its original state. 4. The suspicion that man is immortal appears in the later prophets. 5. His confusion convinced them that the accusation was true. 6. Mahomet's scouts brought him notice that this force was approaching. 7, I insist that you shall not go. 8. The offer was rejected on the plea that it was of uncertain issue. 9. I was quite sure that I should acquit myself with reputation. 10. The fact that you were absent was not remarked. 11. The next great trial of strength was on the question whether the bill should be read a second time. 12. A vague suspicion that the King and the Duke were not sincere Protestants sprang up and gathered strength.



369. The ADJECTIVE CLAUSE stands as substitute for the Adjective. It is employed in all places of the sentence where an adjective might stand, attached to a noun (or noun equivalent). It does not take the place of a predicate adjective as complement to an incomplete verb.

Prominent attention is bestowed upon the adjective clauses introduced by Adverbial Substitutes for the proper relative pronouns. The co-ordinating and restrictive meanings are exemplified with equal fulness.

The Adjective Clause may be replaced by the simple ADJECTIVE, and by the various forms of the

ADJECTIVE PHRASE. The substitution of an Adverbial Expression claims careful attention. The Co-ordinating forms may readily be elevated into independent principal statements.


370. This interchange has already been remarked upon from the other side. The pupil is directed to study the remarks under § 176 in connection with the following examples.

Adjective Clause replaced by Adjective, restrictive. 371. 'Let me have men about me that are fat. The same meaning would be expressed by 'Let me have fat men about me.'

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The evils that afflict society' is the same as 'social evils.'


1. A bird that is cautious avoids the snare. 2. The stone that is rolling can gather no moss. 3. The house that we live in is new. 4. Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown. 5. They have begun a dispute that can never end. 6. The speech he made was little to the purpose. 7. The notions that they have framed of me are various. 8. The hill that you see yonder is five miles distant. 9. Here is a barrier that cannot be passed. 10. The King regarded not the solemn promise he had made. 11. How he looked, the likenesses of him that still remain enable us to imagine. 12. The labour we delight in physics pain. 13. Such are some of the anecdotes that are popularly related about him. 14. The man hath perfect blessedness that walketh not astray. 15. Everything uncommon gives the soul an idea of which it was not before possessed. 16. Nothing in the early existence of Britain indicated the greatness which she was destined to attain. 17. From the auspicious union of order and freedom sprang a prosperity of which the annals of human affairs had furnished no example. 18. I cannot strike at wretched kerns whose arms Are hired to bear their staves.

372. 'All such pupils as are diligent will get prizes' gives the same meaning as All diligent pupils will get prizes.'

'Monday is the day when we open'=' Monday is our opening day.'

The proper relatives may be restored: "The pupils that work diligently-whose diligence is never relaxed;' 'the day that we open (on).'


1. Here are summits where foot of man never trod. 2. He said so at a moment when he was not on his guard. 3. The relation wherein they stood to each other might one day be inverted. 4. His malice was such as cannot be expressed nor measured. 5. Arrangements have been made for a series of lectures wherein the subjects are to be treated so that people generally can understand them. 6. Our troops occupy a position whence the enemy cannot dislodge them. 7. He died in the village where he was born. 8. Sometimes the great Barons exercised almost such powers as belong to kings. 9. Here was fought a battle where neither side was victorious. 10. The stages of the process whereby the hostile elements were melted down into one homogeneous mass are not accurately known to us.

Adjective Clause replaced by Adjective, co-ordinating.

373. The Irish, who were conscious of their own impotence, submitted without a murmur.' This may be shortened: The Irish, conscious of their own impotence, submitted without a murmur.'

'He employed a Jew, who was a great knave, to forge names.' Shorter: He employed a knavish



1. The Duke was restored to his honours, as well as to his fortune, which was very ample. 2. The king's coffin rested for a night by the field of Agincourt, which was then thick with fallen leaves. 3. The English, who were unable to drag guns up the heights, had scarcely any artillery. 4. His head, which was strong for debate and finance, was weak againt the intoxication of fame. 5. His wealth, which was vast and growing, made him an object of envy. 6. His temper, which was arrogant, insolent, and quarrelsome, made him an object of hatred. 7. Public credit was still in its infancy, which was tender and sickly. 8. The Spanish ambassador, whose prudence did not desert him even in his blustering, did not choose to name the King of France. 9. His brother, whose distress was greater than his own, sate near him the whole day. 10. Howe, whose courage was not proportionate to his malignity and petulance, retired from the country.



374. The Adjective Clause may be shortened to any of the forms of the ADJECTIVE PHRASE. This process is in very many examples no more than a simple ellipsis of part of the clause; in other cases, there is very slight additional modification. It is again remarked that a large proportion of these phrases, especially in the preposition - and - noun form, are essentially adverbial.

The adverbial substitutes for the proper relative pronouns are fully exemplified, as well as the proper relative pronouns themselves. The restoration of the proper relatives is recommended as a constant exercise.

See further the remarks under § 273.


Adjective Clause replaced by Possessive Case, restrictive. 375. The duty that the messenger had to perform was difficult. More briefly: The messenger's duty was difficult.'

They will not soon forget the sufferings (that) they endured. Shorter: 'They will not soon forget their sufferings.'


1. Many of the orations that Cicero composed have been preserved. 2. The purpose that the writer had in view is not always clear. 3. The army that Hannibal led was very formidable. 4. I do not see the force of the objections you have urged. 5. The ingenuity that the beaver exhibits is admirable. 6. Between here and home we shall have a voyage that will last three months. 7. The story that they told appears to be true. 8. The anxiety I underwent was extreme. 9. The greatest difficulty with which Mahomet had to contend at the outset, was the ridicule of his opponents. 10. The services he has rendered to the state cannot be over-estimated.


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