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1. His friends would have done well to lend no countenance to such puerile adulation. 2. Were Shakespeare everywhere alike, I should do him injury to compare him with the greatest of mankind. 3. You would be committing a great error to take up such a position. 4. He would be quite ashamed to appear as a witness in the case. 5. I should rejoice to hear of your success." 6. They would be well advised to have nothing to do with the project. 7. You are altogether mistaken to suppose that such is the fact. 8. We shall do the writer no injustice to assume that he is imperfectly acquainted with the subject. 9. To consider these two events, and nothing more, what can appear more extravagant than that the former should have had any influence on the production of the latter?

10. To love my Julia, shall I be forsworn;

To love fair Sylvia, shall I be forsworn;

To wrong my friend, I shall be much forsworn.

Infinitive of Consequence into Adverbial Clause. 336. 'He spoke so as to gain the approbation of all'='He spoke so that he gained the approbation of all!

"The army was harassed so as to be unable to advance'=' The army was harassed so that it was unable to advance.'

The first adverbial expression might be regarded as stating manner, no less than consequence; and the second might pass for an expression of degree. The ambiguity of 'so as to gain, which may mean either consequence or end, purpose, may be avoided by the use of the clause form.


1. He drew up his mantle under his arms, so as to display his scarlet slippers. 2. The tall trees closed overhead so as to keep out every sunbeam. 3. His success has so far dazzled the eyes of the world as to hide the guilt that obtained it. 4. He conducted the war so as to render himself famous. 5. The house was carefully guarded, so as to prevent communication with those within. 6. He was very ambitious, so as to do everything for praise. 7. They are very lazy, so as never to work voluntarily. 8. The balance sheet is drawn up so as to exhibit a correct view of the affairs of the company. 9. He acted so as to justify our confidence in him. 10. The duke chose his posts with the utmost caution, so as to be able to decline a combat, and to render attack impossible.

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337. What had he done to make him fly the land?'='What had he done that he should (have to) fly the land?'

Who has come into the field to cause you to retire?''Who has come into the field that you should retire?'


1. I have done nothing to cause me to be ashamed. 2. Who are you to charge me with inconsistency? 3. Whose anger have you incurred to put you under the necessity of withdrawing? 4. What is their quality to make them so much respected? 5. What promise has he shown to deserve such advancement? 6. What pressure has been brought to bear on the government to induce them to take up the bill? 7. How has he displeased you to be disinherited by you? 8. What do you do with yourself to let me see you so seldom? 9. Who is he to be our leader? 10. What have I to do with you, ye sons of Zeruiah, to find you as adversaries to me this day?


Gerund of End or Purpose into Adverbial Clause. 338. 'I must be cruel, only to be kind'='I must be cruel, only that I may be kind.'

"The High Street had been repeatedly lined with bayonets in order to keep down the disaffected gownsmen': in order that the disaffected gownsmen might be kept down. In order to and in order that' are strengthened forms.

'Speak low, to prevent our being overheard, or 'Speak low, so as not to be overheard '=' Speak low, that we may not be overheard'' Speak low, lest we be overheard.'


1. The squire, to be revenged on the parson, never comes to church. 2. In order to invigorate his frame, he had recourse to the most violent exercise. 3. To give time for the foreign succours to arrive, Henry resolved to attempt no great enterprise at first. 4. The watch must be vigilant, so as to guard against surprise. 5. London was guarded by soldiers to overawe resistance.


Shall our coffers, then,

Be emptied to redeem a traitor home?

7. I am going to yonder gate, to receive further direction. 8. What would I give to see you capable of sharing in their amusement? 9. He must be very careful not to be seen.

10. I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke,

But here I am to speak what I do know.

Infinitive or Gerund after 'too,' 'enough,' 'so-as,' &c., converted by Adverbial Clause of Degree.

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339. He was too much excited to hear reason. A second form is-' He was so much excited as not to hear reason.' The meaning may be given also =by a clause: 'He was so much excited that he did (could, would) not hear reason.'

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"Men's hands are not big enough to grasp everything. Or, Men's hands are not so big as to grasp everything. The clause form is- Men's hands are not so big that they can grasp everything.'


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Another equivalent form is seen in such constructions as this: He had not the prudence to conceal his anger. The same meaning might be given in the previous forms: 'He had not prudence enough (or, He was not prudent enough) to conceal his anger; he was too imprudent to conceal his anger; he was so imprudent as not to conceal his anger. The clause form is-' He was so imprudent that he did not conceal his anger.'

In comparison with the clause, the shorter forms are exceedingly elegant. In very many instances the change cannot be made without sensible straining, and often it cannot with any = propriety be attempted. Perhaps the interchange assumes its main importance in view of translation to or from Latin.


1. This is too warm work to last long. 2. The state was too much weakened by its internal divisions to offer any resistance. 3. The civil commotions of France were of too general importance to be overlooked by the other princes of Europe. 4. The Lords were too prudent to assume unconstitutional functions. 5. This window

was too high to reach from the ground. 6. Scipio was too lordly to be the useful citizen of a republic, too generous to become her master. 7. The Commons had not yet gained strength enough to act without the Lords. 8. No Greek sailors were ever bold enough to pass the pillars of Herakles and to plant colonies on the shores of the Ocean. 9. No man is so distinguished as to be above criticism. 10. Cousin, I am too young to be your father,

Though you are old enough to be my heir.


1. I have seen too much of success in life to take off my hat and huzzah to it as it passes in its gilt coach. 2. The artifices of the king were too refined to succeed, and too frequent to be concealed. 3. No shire was so far distant from the sea as to be secure from attack. 4. The space between every two posts is sufficiently wide to permit a man to glide through. 5. He pretended that he had been put out of his office only because he was too shrewd to be deceived, and too honest to join in deceiving the public. 6. In England there was discontent enough to make even a resolute prince uneasy. 7. The Cavaliers had not the justice and humanity to follow this example. 8. At these things the Protector had the judgment and good nature to connive. 9. The English counties were not of a size to encourage the usurpation of their governors. 10. The vast majority of men are either not vicious enough or not virtuous enough to be loyal and devoted members of treacherous and cruel confederacies.


340. When a verbal meaning is given by a noun or an adjective, the word that would be object to the implied verb is usually connected with the noun or the adjective by means of a preposition; and the prepositional phrase thus formed may in most cases be regarded as of adverbial nature. But if the object take the form of a clause, there is no need of a preposition to attach the object clause to the verbal noun or adjective. Many expressions that practically correspond to these verbal nouns and adjectives, or are equivalent to the implied transitive verbs themselves, take their adjuncts on the same principle.

341. Again, a prepositional adverbial phrase modifying an intransitive verb may sometimes be broken up; the preposition clinging to the verb, which now becomes transitive, with the rest of the adverbial phrase (noun or simple noun equivalent) as object. But when the object is changed to the clause form, the preposition is dropped: the verb apparently takes a noun clause (although, without the preposition, it does not take a noun) as object.

342. Further, a noun that is really in apposition to another noun is often connected with the latter by a preposition, so that the qualification takes the form of a prepositional phrase. When, however, the apposition noun is changed to a noun clause, the preposition is dispensed with.

343. Although the prepositional phrase is most commonly adverbial, some of the examples-for instance, these apposition examples-may be considered as more properly adjectival. Such cases are most conveniently included here. And no doubt some of the clauses might, without violence, be regarded as adverbial clauses, with the meaning of reference prominent.

Prepositional Phrase into Noun Clause.

344. This fact is no proof of hostile feeling on either side'='This fact is no proof (=This fact is not capable of proving) that hostile feeling exists (or existed) on either side.

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Parliament insisted on the suppression of the book'' Parliament insisted that the book should be suppressed.'


'I was ignorant of your being in the house' = 'I was ignorant (=I did not know) that you were in the house.'

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