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1. The wood covering this hill is very valuable. 2. The admiral opened fire on the forts protecting the bay. 3. He issued a decree forbidding his tribe to hold intercourse with strangers. 4. The paths affording access to the castle were carefully guarded. 5. Bethlehem was the place appointed for the birth of the Messiah. 6. The high mountains bounding the desert on the east deprive the trade winds of their moisture. 7. The causes modifying climate are various. 8. Blest be those feasts with simple plenty crowned. 9. The signal was not made at the time agreed on.

10. And oft I wish, amidst the scene, to find

Some spot to real happiness consigned.

Participle into Adjective Clause, co-ordinating. 286. The prisoner, stupified by illness, was unable to understand the proceedings.' In another form: The prisoner, who had been stupified by illness-whom illness had stupified-whose illness had stupified him-was unable to understand the proceedings.'

'The duke's summer palace, surrounded by a beautiful park, lies on the bank of the river.' Otherwise: The duke's summer palace, which is surrounded by a beautiful park-which stands in the middle of a beautiful park-which a beautiful park surrounds-lies on the bank of the river.'


1. I promise thee this ring, adorned with costly stones. 2. The peers, robed in gold and ermine, were marshalled by heralds. 3. Hence oozed a turbid stream, forming a mud-puddle at the corner of two streets. 4. Dunkirk, won by Oliver from Spain, was sold to Lewis the Fourteenth. 5. The stillness was broken by the roll of a drum, followed by a discharge of musketry. 6. Paterson, flushed with pride and hope, accompanied the expedition. 7. The city of Para, surrounded by the dense forest, and overtopped by palms and plantations, greeted our sight. 8. He had visited Florence, recently adorned by the magnificence of Lorenzo, and Venice, not yet humbled by the confederates of Cambray. 9. The English, conciliated by some temporary concessions, and still remembering the cruel regency of Odo, supported Rufus.

10. But me, not destined such delights to share,
My fortune leads to traverse realms alone.

287. He published his royal proclamation, offering pardon to all such as had resisted him.' For offering pardon,' we may substitute wherein he offered pardon,' or 'whereby pardon was offered. Other forms :- which offered pardon,' ' in which pardon was offered,' by which he offered pardon,' &c.


1. Letters were received from the Admiral, announcing the success of his expedition. 2. Bosra was a great mart, annually visited by the caravans. 3. The obnoxious decree still existed in the temple, cutting them off from all intercourse with the rest of the tribe. 4. The prophet remained a month in Tayef, seeking in vain to make proselytes. 5. He despatched a deprecatory letter to Vienna, excusing his conduct. 6. The Court of Common Pleas, presided over by Chief Justice Pratt, pronounced the arrest of Wilkes illegal. 7. Every curate had a threatening notice served on him, commanding him to quit his parish. 8. The messenger hid himself in the marshes of Kent, hoping to escape thence to the continent. 9. We went down to the pier, expecting to meet our friend there. 10. The hero sang a wonderful deathsong, telling of all his old fights, and calling on his sons to come and avenge him.



288. We have already seen that the simple Adjective often suggests an Adverbial sense, and may have its meaning expressed as an Adverbial adjunct. Naturally, therefore, the Adjective Phrase may be expected to undergo the same substitution. Examples are quite common in three forms.

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The NOUN IN APPOSITION. Partakers in every peril, in the glory shall we not be permitted to participate?' Though (seeing that, since, &c.) we have been partakers (or have shared) in every peril, in the glory shall we not be permitted to participate?' The old marshal, victor in all his former battles,

obstinately refused to yield'' As the old marshal had been victorious in all his former battles, he obstinately refused to yield.'

The PREPOSITION AND NOUN has been again and again insisted on as an adjunct essentially adverbial. Neither explanation nor examples need be repeated here.

The PARTICIPLE, especially in the co-ordinating use, is the chief form convertible into an Adverbial Clause. We shall offer a series of examples on this alone, regarding it as a typical form. Indeed, the instances of Noun in Apposition and of Preposition and Noun, might readily be brought under this head. In the examples given above, we might restore an ellipsis: Having been partakers in every peril, &c.'; 'the old marshal, having been victor, &c.' And so for the examples of Prepositional Phrase.

Compare the Participle as Adverbial adjunct, §§ 328, 332-3.

Participle, co-ordinating, into Adverbial Clause. 289. Respecting ourselves, we shall be respected by the world. This is the same as 'If we respect ourselves, we shall be respected by the world.'

Having bishoprics to bestow, he could easily reward the prelates.' The same meaning is expressed by As he had bishoprics to bestow, he could easily reward the prelates.'


1. Not succeeding, he swore to be avenged. 2. This is stigmatized, among Arabian writers, as the impious war, having been carried on during the sacred months of pilgrimage. 3. The king's hereditary revenues, economically administered, sufficed to meet the ordinary charges of government. 4. The judges, holding their situations during the pleasure of the king, were scandalously obsequious. 5. Having shared the distresses of their prince, were they not to share his triumph? 6. The Arab's deadliest foe, having once broken bread with him, might repose

securely beneath the inviolable sanctity of his tent. 7. The Romans, having now set foot in Sicily, determined to declare war against Carthage. 8. He was by no means equal to this task; being entirely ignorant of the ways of the world. 9. Not having read these works, I cannot pass an opinion upon them.

10. Caring little for religion, he cared much for the interests of France. 11. The Emperor, nominally invested with the loftiest titles, was, in fact, no more than the head of a confederacy of secular and ecclesiastical princes.

12. We do it wrong, being so majestical,

To offer it the show of violence.


290. All the forms of Adjective Phrase that may be used in the co-ordinating sense may be expanded to the full form of independent statements in co-ordination with the principal affirmation. The illustration of the conversion is here limited to the case of the Participle, which may be taken as representative of adjective phrases generally. The process is but a short step in advance of the substitution of the co-ordinate relative clause.

Participle replaced by Co-ordinate Sentence.

291. Pulling off my hat, I made a low bow towards the farmer'='I pulled off my hat, and made a low bow towards the farmer.'

Carthage, surrounded by regions without a master, could not resist the desire of conquest'= 'Carthage was surrounded by regions without a master, and so she could not resist the desire of conquest.'


1. Stooping low his lofty crest,

He entered the cell of the ancient Priest.

2. Oxygen is a colourless invisible gas, possessing neither taste nor

smell. 3. Rushing against Horatius, he smote with all his might. 4. Scattered over the field, they had already begun the work of pillage. 5. The island, being girdled by a coral reef, is very difficult of approach. 6. Drawing their swords, they dashed out upon the crowd. 7. The people, yielding to thy prowess, yet confide in thy mercy. 8. Met at every point by the skilful dispositions of the royal forces, the attack utterly failed. 9. Labouring under these domestic evils, and menaced by a foreign invasion, the Britons attended only to the suggestions of their present fears; and following the counsels of Vortigern, they invited over the Saxons.

10. Eight times emerging from the flood,
She mew'd to every watery god

Some speedy aid to send.




292. The ADVERBIAL PHRASE takes the place of the Adverb. It may perform the work of substitute for an adverb in any of the places of the sentence open to the Adverb.

The Adverbial Phrase appears in various forms. Six are enumerated: Noun, Preposition and Noun (or equivalent), Noun with adjunct, Participle (in three varieties), Infinitive, and Gerund. The Prepositional Phrase is of the very highest consequence; the three verb forms are variously useful in their special ways; while the two remaining forms may be set aside as nearly useless for interchanging.

The chief Equivalent Forms are the simple ADVERB and the ADVERBIAL CLAUSE. The MUTUAL INTERCHANGE of the different phrase forms possesses interest and value. The substitution of a separate CO-ORDINATE SENTENCE claims considerable attention. And there are certain minor equivalences.

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