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Embroidery cotton; cannon balls; carriage road; fishing boats; examination papers; dinner table; window glass; sand cart; ball dress; paper, meal, wool mill; tobacco pipes; road, railway contractor; passenger, mail, excursion trains; steam coal; field gun, glass; the sword hand; ticket clerk; wine, tea, provision, slave merchant.

A steam engine, whistle; bank notes, clerks, agents; gas, candle, lamp, torch, star, moon-light; wind, water, hand mills; the patriot passion; chain shot.

189. Velvet turf' is 'turf like velvet' in some prominent quality, as smoothness, softness.

Raven hair is 'hair of the blackness of the raven,' or 'as black as the raven.'


A giant race; giant strength; angel forms; the rufian billows; the wizard note; the warrior oak; her fairy form; a fairy dream; flesh colour; the silver wave; the cat's emerald eyes; an iron constitution, rule; the Iron Duke; the marble floor; crystal springs, fountains, lakes; the vinegar Marquis ; ebony faces.

190. A holiday excursion' is 'an excursion made on a holiday?'

'Summer rains' are 'rains that fall in summer.'


Vacation rambles; night dews, alarm, attack, policeman; Christmas carols; the twilight drum; a matin bird; morning prayers, walks; afternoon sermon; noontide sun; spring flowers; evening song, classes; autumn winds, manoeuvres; the winter, midnight moon; the stag's midnight lair; his midnight orisons; Sunday dinner; marriage vows; wedding gifts, tour; a return cargo; working hours; a fog signal; farewell shot, address, benefit, supper.

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191. A street fight' is 'a fight (that takes place) in the street,"

Home studies' are 'studies prosecuted at home.'


A country house; a town residence; a seaside trip; a wayside inn; village beauties, blacksmith, church; court ladies, dresses; parish schools; house slippers; the island chieftain; field sports, preachers; boat song; sea voyage; school book, life; mountain glen, pines, heather, air; forest oaks; the door bell; a lobby table; stair carpet; Quebec timber; Havana cigars; Antwerp monks; Flanders lace; London porter; Jamaica rum; Sheffield cutlery; Paris fashions; Rhine wine; alehouse sign; railway porter; river steamers; family worship; carriage exercise; army chaplains; farm labourers, servants; hardware, slave trade; newspaper work, correspondent; income, property tax; wall mirror; frontier fortress; third-class passengers.

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192. Novel writers' are writers of novels-whose works are novels,'' authors that write novels.' 'A knife grinder' is one that grinds knives,' 'one whose business it is to grind knives.'

In such cases, the nouns that apparently qualify the others, are really governed by the active verb force implied in the nouns qualified.


Book-binder, -hunter, -seller; paper manufacturer, folder, ruler; cotton spinner; horse hirer, tamer; story-teller; house painter, decorator; watch and clock maker; slave, engine, screw driver; nutmeg graters; lion hunter, tamer; boot and shoe maker; coffee planter; letter carrier; scene shifter; burlesque actor; playhouse managers; scene painter; romance writers; standard-bearer; bread and biscuit baker; game preserver; ratepayers; shopkeepers; slave-, ship-, mill-, land- owner; newspaper reader, editor.

193. 'Her soldier lover' is a short way of expressing her lover, who was a soldier.

'Rival institutions' are 'institutions that are rivals,' 'institutions that try to outstrip each other.' ‘An orphan child'=' a child that is an orphan, 'a child whose parents are dead.

The qualifying noun is sometimes co-ordinating, sometimes restrictive,


The minstrel boy, harp; robber chiefs; his baby brother; the infant hero; the gipsy race; a champion swimmer; gentlemen

servants, sportsmen; my father's signal blast; master gunner, builder, spirit; the priest historian; the shepherd, sailor king; lady students, doctors; a cherub choir; the captive linnet; my vassal band; our stranger guest; a dwarf plant; negro slaves; brother magistrates; fellow creatures, men, prisoners; the islet rock; giant warriors; the pilgrim nation; this Pavilion Temple; coward Vice; guardian angels, saints, slaves.


General examples.

The gipsy camp; shepherd life; treasure cities; herring fishery; sugar refinery; newspaper, colliery, house proprietor; a three-foot rule; a death wound; the Hospital library; day labourers; a sun dial; wrestling, grinning matches; boat, railway accidents; papyrus stalks; game laws; law adviser, agent; the market price; a Biscay gale; mass meetings; retail traders; wholesale grocers; a common-sense decision; commission merchants; battalion, company drill; War, Home Office; open air meetings; signal gun; oil paintings; music stool; colour blindness.


General examples.

A mile race; our poet guide; hireling chivalry; stone bridges, railway bridges; idol worship; music, drawing, singing lessons; a time gun; a ten-pound note; farthing candles, halfpenny stamps, penny newspapers, sixpenny telegrams, shilling periodicals; game, cattle dealer; a salt water plunge; a rain-water pipe; parish school board; the nine hours movement; the Paris and Rouen railway; Trent Valley railway; line-of-battle ships; the California wheat crop; the Bengal indigo crop ; fishing tackle makers; Mines Regulation Act; the San Juan boundary question; Railway and Canal Traffic Bill; a bird's eye view; the University Boat Race; Aberdeenshire granite brooches,


General examples.

1. The forest laws were very oppressive. 2. We caught a Guinea slave ship. 3. He is a government contractor. 4. The city archives were searched. 5. Night attacks seldom succeed. 6. The Court ladies were looking on. 7. The village people had orange cockades. 8. The miser father had a spendthrift son. 9. Mass meetings have been held in some of the mining districts for the consideration of trade disputes. 10. One day the Bristol mail was robbed; another day the Dover coach; then the Norwich waggon,


194. This substitution, like the substitution of the noun, arises from the omission of the whole of an adjective clause except the adverb, or is owing to verb force latent in the noun qualified. (See § 181).

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195. A monthly magazine' is 'a magazine (that is published) monthly.'

'Household words.' 'Household' may be regarded as a noun, no doubt; but it may also be looked upon as adverbial, being the only remnant of an adverbial phrase 'in the household.' The full form is-' Words that are current in every household.'


The outside public; daily wages, offering; weekly numbers, newspaper; far off themes and theories; a haphazard assembly; a chance meeting; hairbreadth escapes; bodily labour, refreshment; everyday clothes, work; up train; down line; quarterly reports; half-yearly examinations; yearly statement; worldly occupation; homeward journey; nightly breezes; yesterday morning; under current; uphill work; indoor, outdoor amusements; inland tribes; the home voyage; in after years.


196. The PARTICIPLE is habitually used as an adjectival adjunct to the noun. The GERUND, which is essentially adverbial in force, is exemplified as a Prepositional Adjective Phrase.

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Such examples as 'brew-house,' 'bake-house,' are indeed compound words; yet they are instances where the noun 'house' is modified by the words brew,' 'bake,' &c., VERBS acting as adjectives.

Besides these, there are other forms that merit some attention. The following examples may be taken as representative: a stand-up fight, tumbledown buildings, a lean-to pig-sty, go-ahead policy. delicious do-nothing days, a would-be assassin. The condensation is obvious,


So as Pro-adjective.

197. 'Cromwell was great ere honour made him 80.' Dryden writes 'so' instead of repeating 'great.' 'Ask yourself whether you are happy, and you cease to be so.' That is, 'you cease to be happy.'

'So' is literally in that state or condition.'

§§ 31, 66, 115, 118.



3. The

1. Genius is bashful, for nature is ever so. 2. Although the French nation is Celtic, the French language is not so. lady was solemn, and so were the rest. 4. In Schiller's view, the Maid of Orleans is inspired because she thinks herself so. 5. The practice was very useful to us all, and eminently so to me. 6. My son is either married, or going to be so, to this lady. 7. If once wrong, they will needs be always so. 8. The Chinese are always concise; so is our author. Simple; so is he. Chinese are grave and sententious; so is he. But in one particular the resemblance is peculiarly striking: the Chinese are often dull; and so is he.

This, that, such, which, either, neither, both.

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198. Deserving to be glorious and happy, he had but expected to be either. Fully expressed: 'to be glorious or happy.'

'I thought he would be willing to go; but that he certainly was not.' That is- but willing (to go) he certainly was not.'

Compare the substitution of these words for nouns.


only art can be. 2. You 3. The soldier swore I was Some difficulties may be many can be neither. That am I. 6. Some of

1. Genius is not cunning, for this are stronger than he; that you are. either dumb or deaf; if not both. 4. surmounted, some can only be evaded, 5. You are waiting here for some one? Virgil's subjects are not pastoral in themselves, but only seem to be such. 7. His singing is very good; I always thought it such. 8. He turned quite white from red, which he had been. 9. The Comitium was consecrated, which the remainder of the forum was not. 10. I come with words as medicinal as true,

Honest as either.

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