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Prepositional Phrase for Adjective, restrictive. 171. Corporeal strength' is also spoken of as strength of body.'

'Continental kingdoms' are 'kingdoms on the Continent.'

'A principle widely applicable' is 'a principle of wide application.'

The pupil will note the adverbial force of the phrase on the Continent,' and also the change of the adverb 'widely' into the adjective wide,' consequent upon the change of the word quali fied from adjective to noun. (§ 182.)

EXERCISE 147.

1. He died a glorious death. 2. Numerical superiority is a great advantage. 3. The French are passionately fond of martial glory. 4. One admires heroic deeds. 5. A most hazardous part was assigned to him. 6. He is a professional gambler. 7. Arrangements were made for a secret meeting. 8. The provincial governors overpowered the royal authority. 9. Draco enacted extremely severe laws. 10. He was a very active and very

courageous man.

Prepositional Phrase for Adjective, co-ordinating. 172. Intercession would be useless'' Intercession would be of no use.'

'Those trees are high'=' Those trees are of great height.'

In these two examples, and indeed on most occasions when this interchange is reasonably possible, the adjective appears as the completion of the predicate. Occupying this position, it is always co-ordinating; it does not limit or narrow the extent of the subject, it adds information about the subject, which is already as definite as is intended.

EXERCISE 148.

1. The cargo of the ship is valuable. 2. His usefulness is indisputable. 3. The nation was carried away captive. 4. Their emotion was uncontrollable. 5. Silver is lighter than gold. 6. Thy love is sweeter than honey. 7. This English officer, more spirited than judicious, made a premature attack. 8. All the acts of rebels are illegal. 9. Perhaps the disgraced general, obscure and inactive, anticipated rising again. 10. Unaltered, unimproved, the manners run.

3. ADJECTIVE replaced by PARTICIPLE.

173. In completeness and exactness of expression, the PARTICIPLE, or Participial Phrase, comes little short of the Clause itself. Under competent management, it is a most valuable form.

Participle for Adjective, restrictive.

174. In this transaction there was nothing blameworthy'; or 'nothing deserving blame.'

'An angry man will not reason calmly'='A man inflamed by anger will not reason calmly.'

EXERCISE 149.

1. The public burdens were heavy. 2. Those are dangerous practices. 3. National disasters teach severe lessons. 4. The sacrifice was offered upon a temporary altar. 5. Was the Thirty Years' War a religious war? 6. Those are Pindaric odes. 7. They regarded the Mosaic law as final. 8. This house shall ever be open to a poor repentant sinner. 9. Some difficult and dangerous exploit was on hand. 10. The general opinion was in favour of triennial parliaments.

Participle for Adjective, co-ordinating.

175. How is it that the Europeans, so remote from China, think so justly and so precisely?' Otherwise: How is it that the Europeans, living (or dwelling, &c.) so far from China, think so justly?'

EXERCISE 150.

1. Edward, apprehensive of danger to the province, put it in a posture of defence. 2. Towns, distrustful of their lord's fidelity, sometimes called in the King as a guarantee of his engagements. 3. A nice workman, famous for little curiosities, made me two chairs. 4. The French king, not content with these successes, threatened England with an invasion. 5. The Scots, sensible of the importance of Dunbar, advanced to relieve it. 6. The Elector's reluctant consent came too late. 7. From the summit of Vesuvius, darkly visible at the distance, there shot a pale, meteoric, livid light. 8. The new governor's pitiless cruelty soon reduced the people to submission. 9. Their skilful policy drew many native tribes to their side. 10. Our incautious general was readily surprised.

II. ADJECTIVE into ADJECTIVE CLAUSE.

176. The ADJECTIVE CLAUSE is a longer and fuller expression than any of the forms of the Adjective Phrase. It gives the meaning with superior force. Accordingly the pupil should weigh the importance of the qualification with some care before deciding upon the use of the Clause. It should not be thrown away on slight qualifications.

The examples that follow are introduced partly by the proper relative pronouns, partly by the adverbial substitutes for these. The pupil may interchange these forms so far as they will interchange readily.

Adjective Clause for Adjective, restrictive.

177. To these men the king owed his crown.' More fully expressed: the crown that he wore.'

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Maritime tribes' are 'tribes that live on the sea-coast, tribes whose territories border on the sea,'

Variety of introducing relatives should be exacted, as far as possible.

EXERCISE 151.

1. Tell us interesting stories. 2. Your proposal has been approved of. 3. He has many powerful friends. 4. The late rains will do much good. 5. Pardon our sins. 6. He was a man of an insatiable ambition. 7. They now entered upon a laborious work. 8. Industrious people should be encouraged. 9. Such errors indicate superficial knowledge. 10. Nelson won for himself deathless fame.

11. Their burdens are too heavy. 12. The wounded man died in the hospital. 13. Popular errors are not easily corrected. 14. The expedition met with almost incredible difficulties. 15. These are baseless theories. 16. The hermit occupied a solitary hut on the hill. 17. Above us were countless stars. 18. Mercenary troops are sometimes brave soldiers. a fruitless search, he sat down to meditate on the suspicious circumstances. 20. Unaccountable oversights, inexplicable delay, and fatal accidents were not uncommon on this railway.

19. After

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178. Fertile regions' are 'regions where fruits are produced in abundance,' or 'such regions as produce fruits in abundance.

Other forms: 'Regions that are fertile,'' that produce fruits in abundance,' that abundance of food is produced in.'

The proper relatives should be compared with the adverbial substitutes.

EXERCISE 152.

1. Unfruitful trees are cut down. 2. His knowledge was of great service. 3. We expected from him exemplary conduct. 4. The troops were recalled from unhealthy climates. 5. Dense forests cover a great part of the country. 6. He was always repeating frugal maxims. 7. These are not knightly deeds. 8. It is foolish to strive against immutable laws. 9. He lived in troublous times. 10. My uncle served in several severe campaigns.

Adjective Clause for Adjective, co-ordinating. 179. The loud waves lashed the shore.' Otherwise: The waves, which were loud, lashed the shore.'

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'The widowed Colonel now lived in close retirement.' The same meaning may be expressed thus: 'The Colonel, who was a widower-who had lost his wife-whose wife was dead-now lived in close retirement.'

When there are several co-ordinating adjectives in a sentence, it may not be desirable to change more than one of them at a time. They may be taken in succession.

EXERCISE 153.

1. The victorious army is returning with much booty. 2. The narrow valleys are thinly inhabited. 3. It was not easy to surprise our watchful enemy. 4. King James, vain of his theological learning, joined in the discussion. 5. The match, so hateful to the nation, was never completed. 6. His countrymen, sensible of their loss, honoured him with a splendid military funeral. 7. His broad clear brow in sunlight glowed. 8. This religion, so elevated and simple, had repeatedly been corrupted. 9. The sun was now resting his huge disc upon the edge of the level ocean. 10. The distant sea reflected the dazzling and level beams of the descending luminary, and the splendid colouring of the clouds.

180. No cares enter this peaceful retreat. Otherwise No cares enter this retreat, where (or wherein) peace reigns.'

As steps between these two forms, simpler substitutes may be given :--this retreat, which is peaceful-whose peace is undis turbed-in which peace dwells.'

EXERCISE 154.

1. Lord Ullin reached that fatal shore. 2. The boy returned to his lonely room. 3. He does not expect to live through the cold winter. 4. Those very useful suggestions should not be lost sight of. 5. We are not to be guided by their untrustworthy report. 6. The king did not soon forget this crushing defeat. 7. The disgraceful conduct of the Allies was severely punished. 8. This encouraging news is to be relied on. 9. She is now forgotten in the quiet grave. 10. The Stamp Act, fruitful in discontents on both sides of the water, was ultimately repealed.

III. ADVERBIAL EXPRESSION for ADJECTIVE.

1. ADJECTIVE replaced by ADVERB.

181. An ADVERB joined to a noun with the force of an adjective stands sometimes after the noun, sometimes before it: 'the hill yonder,'' daily bread.'

The first example and all like it—the street there,' 'Heaven above,' &c.—are explained on the principles applied to the adverbial phrases (§ 182).

The second example may be regarded as an instance of all but complete transformation. The adverb has gone the length of taking up the position proper to the adjective; it immediately precedes the noun. The same explanations are applicableellipsis, and latent verb force in the noun. Examples are reserved in the meantime. (See § 194).

2. ADJECTIVE replaced by ADVERBIAL PHRASE.

182. The most common form of the ADVERBIAL PHRASE, especially in the present usage, is the

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