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"But' as Substitute for Relative.

160. The use of BUT for the proper relative of restriction is a very forcible as well as elegant substitution. 'But' does not stand for the relative alone, it stands for the relative together with the negative sense of the predicate: 'but'=' that—not.'

The interchange is permissible only after a negative meaning. The pupil will observe that the negation need not be given formally by 'not'; a negative statement is often implied in a positive interrogation.

But for Pronoun (with negative adverb).

161. 'There was not a man that did not hesitate.' That-not' may be replaced by 'but': 'There was not a man but hesitated.'


1. There will be scarcely a room that will not be occupied. 2. There was no excess which was not encouraged by the ostentatious profligacy of the Court. 3. On the bench of justice he declared that there was not one heretic in forty thousand who was not a villain. 4. There is scarcely a village in Europe, and not one university, that is not furnished with its little great men. 5. There was no section of the victorious party which had not been the object both of his flatteries and of his machinations. 6. There was not a bay or a haven that the pirates did not know as well as the natives. 7. There is no reward, no sum, which I will not cheerfully pay. 8. There was scarcely a family in the nation which did not feel itself aggrieved. 9. Who is there that would not pity our fate? 10. What man is there that does not commit errors? 11. There was hardly one among the Dukes and Peers who did not carry good little books in his pocket.

Pronoun (with negative adverb) for but.

162. Few men but make this mistake.' 'But' has the same force as the pronoun 'that,' with the verb 'make' negatived. The sentence might be written thus:-(There are) few men that do not make this mistake,'


1. There's not the smallest orb which thou behold'st,
But in his motion like an angel sings.

2. Nothing she does or seems but smacks of something greater
than herself. 3. No man but prophesied revenge for the deed.
4. Scarcely a difficulty they encountered but could be soon got
over. 5. No situation, however wretched it seems, but has some
sort of comfort attending it. 6. Not a housetop but was crowded,
not a jutting projection that could support a spectator but was
occupied. 7. There were few ships of the fleet but suffered
severely in the storm. 8. Hardly a day passed but skirmishes
took place. 9. Not a man of them but stood his ground.
On the housetops was no woman


But spat towards him and hissed;
No child but screamed out curses,

And shook its little fist.



163. The functions of the ADJECTIVE may be performed by other expressions in manifold variety. The great equivalents are-the PHRASE and the CLAUSE. Less important than these are replacing Adverbial Expressions, and the substitution of other single parts of speech; always excepting the notable use of the Noun as Adjective. The avoiding of the repetition of one adjective by the use of another is not a process extensive enough to demand special illustration here.

164. The double usage of the Adjective, first as a restrictive attribute, then as a co-ordinating expression, demands full attention. The restrictive use is the typical use; it is the foundation of the

definition. In this application, the adjective selects from a given class a smaller class or an individual. The co-ordinating use is simply a short and convenient application of the common use of the adjective in the predicate with an incomplete verb. The meaning of the adjective, which in the full statement would be predicated of the subject, is held as already predicated and is assumed as a qualification of the subject. The pupil will observe that this is not a distinction of adjectives into two classesone class for restriction, the other for co-ordination or additional statement. There are few adjectives but may be employed in both senses-at one time for restriction, at another time for co-ordination.

The equivalent forms are not all equally ready to discharge both functions. Hence, such interchanges as are used only on rare occasions, are here passed over. By this means, the working equivalents are more decidedly brought before the mind of the pupil.

165. The order of the various forms is given as rising from the shortest to the longest, from the less to the more complicated. This is not necessarily the order of easiest comprehension. On the contrary, it might be found easier, on the whole, if the pupil were to take first the interchanges with Clause, then with 'Participle, and so on downward: the shorter expressions being very often merely curtailed forms of the longer expressions, generally with changes of little consequence beyond a simple process of Ellipsis.

166. After making the prescribed substitution in each case, the pupil may be asked to try the comparative effect of the other forms. By doing so, he will get accustomed to weigh against each other

different modes of expressing the same meaning. Gradually he will begin to feel the limits of the various modes. And by and by he will also become able to decide which mode is the fittest for any given occasion. He will find, as a general principle, that the longer forms secure for the meaning greater fulness, accuracy, and emphasis. Further, by such comparison, new meanings may be brought to light, For example, an adjective may give one meaning when interpreted through a possessive equivalent, and an additional, more or less different, meaning when interpreted through one of the other forms. From such cases, the pupil will see the advantage of choosing a form that shall convey the intended meaning without any ambiguity.


167. The PHRASE forms that are found to do duty for the Adjective are-the POSSESSIVE CASE,* the PREPOSITION AND NOUN and the PARTICIPLE.

The Prepositional Phrase is the only one that calls for special remark here. Fundamentally and generally it is equivalent, not to an adjective, but to an adverb. Suitable explanations ought to be given along with the individual cases. (See § 182).

The substitution of the Phrase for the simple Adjective is not confined to the Adjuncts of Subject and Object, but may be effected in all parts of the sentence where a noun may occur to take on the qualification. It may find place to some extent also in the predicate use of the Adjective, where the support of a noun is not necessary.

By the term 'Possessive Case,' it is intended here to indicate briefly 'a word (noun or pronoun) in the possessive case.'


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168. The substitution of POSSESSIVE CASE for Adjective is naturally limited to the meaning of possession and, indeed, almost exclusively to personal possession. Even in this restricted employment there is room for not a little variety; the nature and the extent of which will be disclosed by comparison of the longer equivalent forms.

The substitution may take place only when the adjective is used restrictively.

Possessive Case for Adjective, restrictive.

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169. The Baconian philosophy' may stand for 'Bacon's philosophy.'

The imperial will must be obeyed'='The Emperor's will must be obeyed.'


1. The statesman will not oppose popular opinion. 2. Some baronial castles were demolished. 3. Tell would not do homage to the ducal hat. 4. Maternal solicitude might be read in her face. 5. The boy admires the Homeric heroes. 6. The man wants medical advice. 7. Every line betrayed a friendly hand. 8. She ran to meet us, with childish eagerness. 9. This is beyond the episcopal jurisdiction. 10. Catherine, with womanly pride and queenly scorn, refused to recognize the tribunal.


170. The PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE is an expression consisting, in the typical form, of a preposition and a noun. The noun may or may not be qualified by adjuncts; and it may be replaced by any of its recognized equivalents.

The Prepositional Phrase is essentially adverbial. This statement is illustrated at length in 182. The remarks there made should be studied in this connection.

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