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1. SPEECH, or LANGUAGE, may be regarded as consisting of sayings or statements, which are handled in Grammar under the name of Sentences. Every sentence must contain the expression of some sense or meaning. And when we seek to find out the elements that combine to express a meaning, the sentence resolves itself into members that stand in certain definite relations to each other. These members have been designated by Grammarians, in the "Analysis of Sentences," as Subject, Predicate, Object, and Adjuncts to these. They are not necessarily represented each by a single word; most of them, on the other hand, are very frequently represented by expressions made up of longer or shorter combinations of words. It should seem, therefore, that such many-worded expressions might not unreasonably claim to be enrolled with single words among the PARTS OF SPEECH.

But when the title Part of Speech was conferred, the Sentence was looked at from the superficial point


of view-simply as an aggregation of naming words; insufficient regard was had to the functions of words as related members of an organic whole. Individual words, which are so obviously bits or parts of speech, are thus in possession of a prescriptive right to the name. We will not now dispute that right. We are content, without discussion, to accept the term Part of Speech in its received application. We do not now demand that it shall cover the terms Phrase and Clause. By "Part of Speech," then, we mean Single Word, as opposed to such other parts or forms of speech (or sentence) as are mostly composed of several words - the PHRASE and the CLAUSE.



2. In its chief employment, the NOUN stands as Subject or Object of a statement or Sentence. It may also occupy other places; it may name and point out individuals that might, if need were, have something said about them, or be represented as having an action expended upon them.

In all these positions, the typical form for the expression of objects of thought is the Noun. But, from time to time, the Noun desires relief. By the unintermitting use of this part of speech on every possible occasion, composition would be rendered most ungainly, wearisomely heavy and slow; while in many cases the writer would be unreasonably cramped in the expression of his meaning. Hence

there is an extensive application of other forms to do duty for the Noun with more or less completeness and efficiency.

The proper Substitutes for the Noun are--the PRONOUN, the NOUN PHRASE (the INFINITIVE of the Verb), and the NOUN CLAUSE. These will be exemplified in order. But, first, there may be noted here certain important interchanges of Nouns among themselves; and, lastly, attention will be directed to a looser interchange of the Noun with the Adverbial Clause.

I. NOUN and NOUN interchanged.

3. When we wish to avoid repeating a noun that has just been used, we very often call in the services of another noun. The substitution may take place in any of the parts of the sentence open to the Noun.*

1. NOUN replaced by SYNONYM.

4. The substitute noun sometimes gives the very same meaning as the noun that it replaces; more commonly, however, it gives the same general meaning with a shade of difference. In both cases, the two nouns are called Synonyms; they are said to be synonymous.

5. Strafford laid a deep scheme to undermine the power of the Commons, and to secure for

*Theoretically, we might be expected to show the interchange in all the parts successively; first in the Subject, then in the Object, and so on. That would be thorough work, no doubt; but in this particular case, and in some others, the advantages would be altogether counterbalanced by the disadvantages. Still, though the parts are mixed in the Exercises that this note applies to, the teacher may yet distinguish the positions, or require the pupil (according to ability) to do so,-first and more especially the leading and typical positions of Subject and Object.

Charles absolute power. This plan he called, in his private letters, "Thorough." The synonymous word 'plan' is used to prevent the repetition of ' scheme.'

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The Batavian youths wore an iron ring or shackle upon their necks until they had slain an enemy, a symbol which they then threw away as an emblem of sloth.' 'Symbol' and 'emblem' express the same meaning. There is variety in the use of different words on the two occasions.


The pupil will point out the synonymous words. He may then be asked to try, for comparison, the effect of the repetition of either of the two nouns. The

teacher may give further suitable explanations.

1. The monks yielded to the Pope; but John, defying the Pontiff, drove them from their abbeys. 2. It is not a time for adulation; the smoothness of flattery cannot save us in this rugged and awful crisis. (Compare Exercise 27, 1.) 3. The debate soon ended, everybody getting wearied of the controversy. 4. He boasted of his great feats, comparing them to the exploits of ancient heroes. 5. They regarded the simple expedient of the trapper with wonder, for the success of the device was complete. 6. Although the general's wound caused him severe pain, he strove to conceal his suffering. 7. The battalions ascended the cliff, and formed again on the plains at the top of the precipice. 8. Magellan gave to this ocean the appellation of the Pacific, which name still retains. 9. In hot countries the woods are not like our woods. They are great dark forests, where the trees are very close and exceedingly tall. 10. This man's business being to flatter and to make sermons, we must allow that he was most industrious in his calling.

11. Honour, that praise which real merit gains,

Or even imaginary worth obtains,

Here passes current.

Only one series of examples is presented here. The substitution will come up again in another form. (See PART III. SIMPLE AND ABSTRUSE.) Meantime the pupil will be on the outlook for similar instances in his reading, and all such he will note and examine as they arise.

2. NOUN replaced by MORE GENERAL NAME.

6. An exceedingly common substitution is a noun that names a more extensive class of the same

sort of individuals. Such a term may at pleasure be limited or qualified so as to give an exact equivalent to the first-mentioned noun.

7. From whomsoever the crime proceeded, it was a deed of infatuation.' Instead of employing 'crime' a second time, the writer takes 'deed,' a more general name: 'deed' includes 'crime,' and many more actions besides.

Appointed Viceroy of Ireland in 1631, Strafford tried the first experiment in that island. 'That island' is 'Ireland.' The use of the more general term 'island' limited by 'that,' saves the repetition of the name Ireland.''

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The pupil will point out the substitutions, and tell the exact nature of them. The teacher may add suitable explanations.

1. He called for some coffee, and launched out into the virtues of that berry. 2. You were not in my sitting-room, Mrs. C., when I entered that apartment. 3. The palace of the duke is a splendid edifice. 4. Critics have discussed whether Milton's Paradise Lost may be called a heroic poem. Many will not give it that title. 5. One-ninth of the weight of water consists of hydrogen, and this gas can readily be obtained from it by the action of certain metals. 6. He spoke eloquently in praise of good cheese, and explained the different kinds of that commodity. 7. Comines was one of the most enlightened statesmen of his time. This eminent man deliberately pronounced England to be the best governed country he knew. 8. Robert Bruce sent

over his brother Edward with an army of 6000 men into Ireland; and that nobleman assumed the title of king of that island. 9. The Church of St. Lawrence, a fine old building, is a Gothic structure of brick. 10. Virgil, who copies Theocritus, refines upon his original; and in all points where judgment is principally concerned, he is much superior to his master.


The pupil will point out both synonyms and more generaɩ names.

1. She was so far from regretting want of beauty that she never mentioned that perfection without contempt. 2. These rich velvets come of Venice; but commerce is like the favour which attends the rich, and the queen of the Adriatic is already far on

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