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heart, but he firmly believes in the necessity of the present war, and the righteousness of the Allied cause. He regards a war like this in the light of a surgical operation which is necessary to remove a cancerous growth. Nobody believes that surgical operations are desirable in themselves, nor that they should be submitted to merely for the moral good one may get from them; but nevertheless they are sometimes necessary to save life. The book is a manly and vigorous appeal to Christians to cease from quarrelling over non-essentials, and to bring to the suffering world what only Christianity can give.
The Wisdom of Ben Sira (Ecclesiasticus). By W. O. E. Oesterley, D.D., p.p. 148, cloth, London. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1916. $1.00.
In its new series of "Texts important for the Study of Christian Origins," Dr. Oesterley and Canon Box are preparing notable aids to the Biblical student. This volume is the second of the series. The discovery, in the Cairo Synagogue, of Mss. fragments, which enable us to reconstitute about three-quarters of the Hebrew Text of Ecclesiasticus has made imperative a new translation of this important Book. We are indeed, fortunate in having this work done by Dr. Oesterly. The Translation is prefaced by a brief but adequate introduction, dealing with the new Hebrew Text, the Book, and its Author, and giving a Bibliography. The work of translation has been excellently done. Marginal letters apprize the reader as to whether the original of any particular passage is Hebrew or Greek; and the footnotes render valuable assistance, giving-occasionally-the rendering of the Syriac text. We are certain that the little volume will receive from Biblical scholars the welcome it deserves.
The Problem of Creation. By the Right Rev. J. E. Mercer, D.D., late Bishop of Tasmania. Crown 800 clo. p.p. xiv and 326, London. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1917. $2.50.
Bishop Mercer has written one of the most thoughtful and suggestive books on this important subject that have yet appeared in print. He distinctly limits himself to the apologetical viewpoint.
Of all the vast mass of apologetical literature this volume seems to us the most vital statement of the Eternal Purpose of the Creator. As the initial volume of a library of Christian Evidences, it promises well for the series. While dealing with almost purely scientific material, it avoids the extreme, altogether too common in works of this character, of over-great technicality. Any reader who possesses a working knowledge of the "new science" can readily follow the Author's reasoning and enter into his most recondite discussions.
The argument is based chiefly on the postulate "Ex nihilo nihil fit." But the Bishop saves himself from dualism, from materialism, and from pantheism by positing will at the basis of creation, as well as by his theory of matter. He accepts the scientific "speculation" that all forces of nature may be differentiations of one fundamental reality-energy; and he holds that matter is not dead, but endowed with potentialities, and resolves itself, ultimately, into energy. Further, what is objectively energy is subjectively will. Thus the Creation is, in some mode of externalization, the expression and embodiment of the will, the mind, the Love, of the Eternal God. This finds its practical outcome in the creation centres of the "will-to-live." Now, given this foundation, the process of creation is Evolution. The whole discussion of this subject is of the utmost value. One thing on which he lays great stress is the continuity of the process in which he will recognize no gaps. This is no doubt one result of his theory of matter. Yet Evolution has its limits. Outside its sphere stand Space, Time and Change, the Laws of Nature, Process, Adaptability and Psychic Forces.
Passing over much that is valuable and noting, as we pass, that he considers the old materialism as dead, we go on to one of the fundamental discussions of the book. In the Chapters on "Causation" and "Causation and Will" the Bishop takes up some of the underlying principles of the whole subject. The Concept of Causation, he holds is immanent in man, because it is immanent in the cosmic process as a whole. So we start with positing the validity of this concept. And from the endless chain of causes he excludes the first cause, as the ultimate Ground which simply exists. And back of causation stands Will. The Cosmos becomes, in his view, "a manifestation of Will definitely and consciously directed towards
the attainment of ends." But Will is only one factor; we have immediate experience of consciousness, of feeling, of personality, of the longing for Salvation. Hence the discussion of Necessity, Contingency and Freedom,-all treated in a most illuminating manner. He next turns to the Cosmos, its form and law. This discussion leads on to a wonderfully suggestive restatement of the Argument from Design,-which gives the Defenders of the Christian Faith an old weapon, with a new temper and a sharpened edge.
We omit much that is of high value, as, e.g., his discussion of Personality, to state his conclusions. Inclining, as he does, to a theory of special creation for individual centres of the "Will-tolive," he says:-"At the head of existence is the Supreme MonadGod. Around Him, in various orders and in various stages of development, are an indefinite number of derived or created monads, sharing in various degrees God's spiritual freedom and spontaneous initiative." The Bishop says that we have good ground for supposing that the purpose of the Cosmic Process is the evolution of persons, which argues, of course, a Personal Creator. And in this connection he brings the Incarnation into the Cosmic Process as its highest manifestation. He has now reached the culmination of his argument, and concerns himself, at the close, with the social relations of the various individual centres of the "Will-to-live" which must become also centres of the "Will-to-love" in the highest development. So he now discusses Religion and Evil in the Cosmos. The latter discussion is the weakest portion of the whole work, as the author seems bound in the fetters of the Hegelian triad, Innocence, Sin, Virtue, on the one hand, and the Evolutionary idea of stages of development, on the other.
Throughout the work, the Bishop cautions us that we are not dealing with demonstrated or even with demonstrable facts, but with working hypotheses. And yet there emerges enough that is fine in the demonstration that everything in the Universe must find its ultimate Source and Ground in God. An exceedingly well arranged topical Table of Contents and a copious index add greatly to the value of the book. No student of Apologetics, no clergyman can afford to ignore this notable work, which opens up a new armory to the apologete.
F. C. H. W.
A Book of Prayer for use in the Churches of Jesus Christ. Compiled by a Presbyter. Limp Leather. pp. 299. Boston: Sherman, French & Co. $1.25 net.
One of the noteworthy signs of the times is the multiplication of Service Books for the Denominations. The Presbyterians have had such a Book for some years; and now comes this exquisite little volume, to assist all of our separated brethren in their public Worship of God. The Book contains five forms each for Morning and Evening Prayer, and services for occasional offices, for Christmas Day, Good Friday, Easter Day, Ascension Day, Whitsunday and for Trinity Sunday, for all of which, except Good Friday, the Holy Communion is suggested. There is a "Ceremony for Admission to the Church," for Baptism of Infants and of Adults, in which we would call attention to the fact that the formula: "N, I baptize thee in the name of the Lord Jesus," is inadequate and invalidates the sacrament. In the Baptism of Adults, the rite closes with the words from our Confirmation office:-"Defend, O Lord, this Thy Child, etc." The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, which contains some elements from our Service, falls far short of the Catholic Liturgy, both in structure and in content. The Marriage Service departs little from our own. The same may be said, in general, of the Bridal Service, which contains some Protestant elements. It is worthy of note that the Compiler has here introduced Prayers for the Departed. The selections from the Psalms are taken from our Psalter.
It is evident that the compiler has made a careful study of the ancient Catholic Service Books as also of our Book of Common Prayer. The Te Deum is freely used; and we find an occasional collect. But there are not a few liturgical infelicities such as the use of the Venite in the place of the Te Deum, of the Ten Commandments and the summary of the Law in Morning Prayer, and the use of the Beatitudes in the Communion Service. Also we note the customary "long prayer" is retained. Yet, on the whole, this book marks a distinct advance in the direction of well ordered worship in the Protestant Denominations.
A Magazine of comment, criticism and review dealing
Recent Suggestions for Reunion
BY THE RT. REV. ARTHUR C. A. HALL, D.D., LL.D., BISHOP OF
Unity and Schism: By the Rev. T. A. Lacey. (Young Churchman Co., 1917.)
The Outlook for Religion: By W. E. Orchard, D.D. (Funk & Wagnalls, 1918.)
The Work of the Church on Behalf of Unity (Hale Memorial Sermon): By the Rt. Rev. C. P. Anderson, Bishop of Chicago. (Young Churchman Co., 1917.)
The Level Plan for Church Union: By W. M. Brown. (Whittaker, 1910.)
An Appeal to Our Fellow-Believers in All the Churches: By the Rev. Newman Smyth, D.D., Chairman, Rev. Peter Ainslie, D.D., etc.
To an elderly churchman (who repudiates the question-begging description "old-fashioned") we live in strange times. Government by General Boards and Commissions is being substituted for Episcopacy; campaigns and drives take the place of the seasons of the Christian year; questionnaires displace pastoral visitation; and "visions" the creed. So we must be prepared for startling suggestions with regard to Reunion. These range all the way from the frank acceptance of undenominationalism, or its first cousin of really sisterly likeness interdenominationalism, to surrender to the claims of Rome-with